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Full text of "The origin and services of the Prince of Wales Regiment : including a brief history of the militia of French Canada, and of the Canadian Militia since Canada became a British colony"

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Entered, according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year Eighteen hundred and ninety-seven, for the Prince of 
Wales Regiment, by Thomas Page Butler, Lieut. -Col. commanding, at the Department of Agriculture. 




who, by graciously allowing the corps to bear his honoured name, 

by the kindly interest he has always evinced in its welfare, has contrib 
uted so largely to its esprit de corps and loyal devotion to duty, the 
following pages are gratefully inscribed by the Officers and members 
of His Royal Highness Regiment of the Active Militia of Canada. 



I The Militia of the French Regime 1 1 

II The First British Canadian Militia 16 

III The Militia of 1812 28 

IV The Volunteers of 1837 35 

V The Montreal Volunteer Militia Rifles .... 43 

VI A Friendly Invasion 51 

VII The Prince of Wales Regiment 55 

VIII The "Trent Affair . . 59 

IX The Fenian Raids ... 63 

X Service in Aid of the Civic Power ..... 73 

XI Another F riendly Invasion 79 

XII The Northwest Rebellion 81 

XIII After the Rebellion 89 

Roll of Honor .... . . . . 96 

List of Officers .... 97 


" War is honourable 

" In those who do their native rights maintain ; 
" In those whose swords and iron barrier are 
" Between the lawless spoiler and the weak." 


The history of the Prince of Wales Regiment has more than a mere regimental or local 
interest. It embraces the story of the development of a great national force which discharges 
a high and most useful function in the Canadian community the Active Militia a loyal 
bod}- which has not only protected the altars and hearths of Canada from the foreign invader 
and the internal disturber, but has left the blood-stained imprint of its gallant deeds stamped 
in imperishable characters upon the glorious pages of the heroic history of the noblest 
empire the world has ever known. 

The work of compiling the accompanying pages has been a source both of pleasure and 
regret to me of satisfaction because it enabled me to do something, even in a modest way, 
towards filling the want which unquestionably exists for a connected story of the Canadian 
Militia ; of regret because the opportunities presented did not permit of a more thorough 
treatment of this prolific subject. 

It seems only natural that the history of the oldest existing militia regiment should lead 
back to the origin of Canada s constitutional force, and I trust that the information given 
respecting the old military organizations of this country, fragmentary and incomplete though 
the}- of necessity are, will prove not merely interesting, but even useful. To reveal to the 
men of a particular corps, or to the corps of any military service as a whole, the honourable 
traditions to which they are the heirs, is to increase their efficiency and practical military 
value. As Lord Wolseley has put it, " Historical traditions affect the character of regiments 
more than might be imagined. Make a man proud of himself and of his corps, and he can 
always be depended upon." The records of the splendid services of the Canadian Militia as 
a whole, and the Prince of Wales Regiment in particular, contained in the accompanying 
pages, despite the imperfections of arrangement, are such as to inspire the military spirit of 
the gallant regiment in question. 

In view of the undeniable practical value of that quality, which for want of a better 
term we call " esprit de corps," it appears a pity that some systematic effort has not been 
made to trace out the lines of descent from the war-tried military bodies of the war of 1812-15, 
which some of our city and county battalions could fairly claim, on the established principle 
that a regiment exists as one and the same corps through numerous phases of reorganization, 
and even with periods of absolute disorganization intervening. As Captain Otley L. Perry, 
in his interesting work, "Rank, Badges and Dates in Her Majesty s Army and Navy" 

(p. 145) says: "Some Regimental numbers (in the regular army) represent a series of 
regiments, with, in certain cases, considerable intervals between the establishment of a new 
regiment and the disbandment of its immediate predecessor bearing the same number. A 
perusal of Cannon s or Trimen s records of regiments shows that this principle has been 
universally adopted in the Army." 

The Prince of Wales Regiment makes no claim to continuous existence further back 
than the establishment of the Rifle Rangers, but in the light of army precedent there appears 
no reason why it should not, having been known as the " Montreal Rifle Battalion " at the 
time it received its present designation, claim descent from " Montreal Rifles " of the rebellion. 
No other rifle companies existed in Montreal during the intervening period, and when the 
Rifle Rangers were organized several former members of the Rifles of 1837-38 joined the 
company, including its first captain. Similarly, why should not the regiment, being and 
always having been the " First " Regiment of the present militia force, claim descent from 
the " First" Militia Battalion of 1812, with which it could claim personal connection through 
at least one of its officers, the Adjutant? 

If a modest and imperfect record of the services of the Canadian Militia and a particular 
regiment of it, be of interest in the service, I trust it may also prove of some general interest 
throughout the Dominion and assist to draw the attention of the Canadian public to the value 
of the militia. Fortunately, since the ugly menaces of the neighbouring, and not always 
neighbourly, republic a year ago, the militia has come to be treated seriously again, but, in 
the piping times of peace it is hard to keep vip that public interest in the force necessary to 
produce the required sinews of war. We are told that Canada is a commercial and a peace 
able country, as if the mere love of peace by the Canadian people, and the flourishing 
condition of the commerce of the Dominion constituted a protection against war instead of 
being an actual temptation to attack us. In the iSth century there was much repugnance 
to war by our forefathers because they regarded it as fatal to constitutional liberty. Our age 
has been much occupied with a general progress of humanity, and it has accordingly looked 
eagerly for signs of the disappearance of war and of an approaching millenium of peace. As 
we want peace to develop this fair young country of ours it is necessary that we should 
be prepared to insure it. If threatened, it will avail little to say that we most sincerely love 
peace, and that the very idea of war shocks us. 

As the Hon. Dr. Borden, the present popular Minister of Militia and Defence, recently 
said : " Trouble is much less likely to come to a people who are well prepared to meet it." 
The record of the services of the militia is the most eloquent plea that could be made for the 
maintenance of the force on the most efficient basis possible. 

The lack of time and space have united to prevent the record from being as complete as 
I would have desired, but such as it is, it will, I trust, serve to stimulate the pride of the 
members of the Prince of Wales Regiment in their corps, help to encourage the militia as a 
whole to live up to the splendid traditions of the service, and at a time when a practical 
manifestation of popular sympathy with the force is desirable, draw public attention to the 
importance of those services which have made the people of Canada proud of, and grateful to, 
their citizen soldiery. 



February 22nd, 1897. 

(Efycmks of ttye (Eommanbmg (Officer. 

As the Officer Commanding the First or Prince of Wales Regiment I beg in this public 
manner to express the thanks of the Regiment to its many kind friends by whose subscrip 
tions and assistance we have been enabled to publish this history, and at the same time to 
benefit our Regimental Fund, which, as all who know anything of the Volunteer System in 
Canada are aware, is always insufficient for ordinary Regimental expenses. 

The idea of publishing -a history of the Corps has been in my mind for many years, and 
ever since I took over the command I have been waiting a convenient opportunity to carry it 
into effect. When, last spring, the officers of the Regiment decided to enter upon the task, 
we were much pleased to find that Capt. Ernest J. Chambers, who, from his long connection 
with the force, and his experience as correspondent of the Montreal "Star" during the Xorth- 
West Rebellion, was peculiarly fitted for the task, was able to undertake the duty of writing 
it. The public will, we feel certain, appreciate his work, and peruse its pages with pleasure 
and profit whether the reader is actively connected with the Volunteers or not, and will join 
with us in thanking him for the pains he has taken to produce a work of more than mere 
Regimental interest. 

We feel that we would be lacking in justice and gratitude did we omit at the same time 
to thank the publisher, Mr. E. L. Ruddy, for the conscientious care with which he has labored, 
and the exertions made by him in getting out what we venture to think will be acknowledged 
to be a work of credit to the Regiment. 

THOMAS PAGE BUTLER, Lieutenant-Colonel, 

Commanding Prince of Wales Regiment. 


HE history of the Canadian Militia comprises the most heroic and most 
honourable annals of the Canadian people. The story of the gallant 
force which prides itself upon being the first line of defence of this fair 
Dominion goes back to the very establishment of the old French Colony. 
The Canadian Militia force of to-day is the same force as was the main 
protection of the Infant French Colony against its ever alert Indian 
foes and its persistently jealous Anglo-colonial ones. 

When British determination and hardy courage triumphed over 
French gallantry yoked to official rascality, and the Union Jack replaced the 
golden lilies of the Bourbons on the Canadian fortresses, the old Canadian 
Militia, which by its deeds of arms had given immortal fame to many a bloody 
battlefield in virgin forest and sylvan glade did not cease to exist. It, simply 
submitting to the inexorable logic of conquest, and with a pious curse upon 
Bigot and the other parasitical creatures of the Friponne, who had sapped the energies 
of the old French Colony, transferred its allegiance from the crown of France to that of 
Britain and was maintained by the British conquerors on the same system of organization, 
as had existed before the conquest. The present Dominion Militia can trace its origin back 
to this first British Canadian Militia by direct descent. 

The more one studies the comparatively long history of the force which has added so 
many pages of glorious records to the history of this Canada of ours the more must he be 
impressed with the absurdity of the still oft repeated, ridiculous remark that this country has 
no history worth speaking of. 

The history of the oldest regiment in the militia, a regiment which has been the actual 
parent of several others is naturally, one may say, the history of the service. It would not 
be complete without at least some reference to the organization and accomplishments of the 
militia from its first inception up to the time of the organization of the regiment in question. 
Without wishing for a moment to underestimate the magnificent services rendered in the 
defence of Canada by the British Army and Navy, it must be acknowledged that in the face 


of general rebellion and invasion alike, Canada has had to depend chiefly for defence upon 
the natural courage and unwavering loyalty of the militia. This national force of ours 
inherits not only its own traditions, dating back to the heroic days when a handful of gallant 
French colonists were endeavouring to create a new France along the banks of the St. Law 
rence, but draws an inspiration from the British Army. The Canadian militiamen realize 
that in belonging to the Canadian Militia the} belong to an auxiliary force of the Imperial 
Army, whose services are constantly illustrating anew, in distant and various climes, and 
against every kind of foe, the qualities of the British valour and virtues which have made 
Britain what she is. 

That Canada should depend for her defence upon a body of citizen soldier}- appears but 
natural when it is considered that her original population was made up largely of the military 
colonists of two brave and warlike nations. A strong military element was bodily incorpo 
rated in the population of Canada at an early stage of the country s settlement. When the 
Marquis de Tracy arrived to take over the duties of Viceroy in 1664, he brought with him as 
settlers the then newly disbanded regiment of Carignan-Sallieres, which had returned to 
France after fighting the Turks in Hungary. These men, who had aided in setting bounds 
to Mahometan encroachment, were admirably adapted for settlement in a country in which 
constant fighting was going on with the Iroquois and the English colonists. Other military 
settlers from France followed, and when in turn the English began to direct attention to the 
settlement of the country, the discharged soldiers of Amherst s old regiments were encouraged 
to settle in Canada. The immigration of the devoted United Empire Loyalists resulted in 
another infusion of the loftiest kind of military spirit into the population of Canada. 

The jSth Highlanders, who, having been raised in 1757, formed a part of Wolfe s army, 
was disbanded in Canada in 1764, and several of its officers obtained grants of large tracts 
of country, seigniories owned to this day by their descendants. A great portion of the soldiers 
married French Canadian girls and settled permanently in the colony. These were the 
founders of the many French speaking families bearing Scotch names to be found in the 
lower counties of the Province of Quebec. The 78th was again raised in Scotland to meet 
the exigencies of the American revolution in 1778, and again disbanded at the conclusion of 
the war. 

After the war of 1812 the Watteville and Meuron Swiss Regiments were disbanded in 
Canada, and many of the officers and men settled here, adding another important military 
element to the new Canadian population. The DeMontenachs, Labrueres, D Orsonnens, 
Genands, and others have held and still hold prominent places in the Canadian Militia. 

It is scarcely to be wondered at then that although a peace loving people, when occasion 
requires the Canadians are ever ready to fight in defence of their firesides, and have been 
from the time when this country was a French Colony. 

Few people realize what a powerful force the militia of the old French colony was. The 
year of the first battle of the Plains of Abraham, 1759, Montreal contained 4,000 inhabitants, 
and yet the militia organization of the province was so perfect, that Montreal alone had a 
militia force of about 1,000 men. This enrollment of such a large proportion of the popu 
lation was accomplished by the aid of the Feudal law of Fiefs, which obliged every man in 
the colony, the noblesse excepted, to enroll himself in the militia, and provided for the 
appointment of a captain in every parish, who was responsible to the Government for the 
drill and good order of his men. 

When the French governments of the colony wanted the services of the militia as 
soldiers, the Colonels of militia, the seigneurs, or the Town Majors, in consequence of a 
requisition from the Governor, sent orders to the several Captains of the militia in the country 
parishes to furnish a certain number of militiamen chosen by those officers, who ordered the 


drafts into town under an escort, commanded by an officer of militia, who conducted them to 
the Town Major, who furnished each militiamen with a gun, a capot, a Canadian cloak, a 
breech clout, a cotton shirt, a cap, a pair of leggings, a pair of Indian shoes and a blanket. 
The old Canadian militiaman during the French regime must certainly have looked more 
serviceable than soldierly, particularly to the critical eyes of those used to the prim tight-laced 
soldiers of those days. But he showed that he could do the work required of him. 

After receiving their equipments, the militiamen were marched to the garrison for which 
they were destined. The French authorities do not appear to have made any serious attempt 
to make trained line soldiers or artillerymen out of the militia. They preferred to rely upon 


the smart professional soldiers of the Carignau, Carillon, Languedoc, Bearne, Guienne, La 
Sarre, Bern- and Royal Roussillon regiments and the Troupes de la Marine for the line of 
battle, leaving to the militia the just as dangerous, and considering the country, just as 
important functions of partisans and bush rangers. Consequently, while clothing the peasant 
soldiery in a fashion as much unlike the military uniform of the day as anything well could 
be, the French officers made no attempt to instill into the ranks of the militia an}- idea of 
drill and discipline beyond such as was necessary to secure a fair show of order while on the 
march. This employment as scouts and skirmishers was congenial to the warlike race, and 
they readily came forward whenever the war drum sounded. 

Sometimes the old French Canadian militia dressed exactly like their Indian allies. 
Some of the Canadian prisoners captured in affairs of outposts during Wolfe s siege of Quebec 
were naked, with their bodies daubed with red and blue paint, and with bunches of painted 
feathers in their hair. According to Parkman, they were said to use the scalping knife as 
freely as the Indians, in which respect they resembled the New England Rangers. 

The old French militia was, according to Warbnrton, generally reviewed one or twice a 
year for the inspection of their arms ; that of Quebec was frequently exercised, and had 
attached thereto an efficient company of artillery. Many duties of law, police and the 
superintendence of roads in the country districts were also imposed on the Captains of militia. 
The Governor-General was every year accustomed to bestow a quantity of powder and ball by 
way of gratification upon these useful officials. 

During the Anglo-Indian French war, says Rogers in his "Rise of Canada," in 1754 to 
be exact, when the English American colonists had determined upon the four expeditions 
against Crown Point, Niagara and the French fortresses in Nova Scotia and on the Ohio, the 
Marquis dti Quesne, then Governor of Canada, organized the militia of Quebec and Montreal ; 
minutely inspected and disciplined the militia of the seigniories, and attached considerable 
bodies of regular artillery to every garrison. When the Marquis de Vaudreuil de Cavagnac 
arrived in 1755 to succeed du Quesne, he found all Canada in arms. Every parish was a 
garrison, commanded by a captain, whose authority was not only acknowledged, but rigidly 

The French governors undoubtedly appreciated the value of the force, and when the last 
decisive struggle was impending, at the close of the year 1758, the Marquis de Yaudreuil 
issued a proclamation to the officers of the Canadian militia to excite their zeal and quicken 
their activity in preparations for resistence. "Notwithstanding our glorious successes," said 
lie, " the state of the colon}- is perilous. No time must be lost in organizing our defence." 
He then directed that all the male inhabitants of the province, from sixteen to sixty years of 
age, should be enrolled in the militia, and should remain in readiness to march at a moment s 
notice. The Captains of militia faithfiilly endeavoured to comply with these orders, but the 
habitants showed some disinclination to leave their farms. In many cases the levies, under 
the law of universal conscription, were carried out to the letter, sections of the country 
remained waste, and eventually the country was involved in a state of absolute famine. 

On the occasion of this last appeal of the French governor there was really a magnificent 
response, for, at the time of the conquest, according to British official returns, the effective 
militiamen of the colony numbered 20,433 men, divided among the military districts as 
follows. Quebec, 64 companies or 7,976 men; Three Rivers, 19 companies, 1,115 men; 
Montreal, 87 companies, 7,331 men. The military administrative organization during the 
French regime was very simple, consisting, in each district, outside of Quebec, where the 
colonial administration was located, of the following staffs : a Governor, pay 3,000 livres ; a 
Lieutenant du Roi, 2,000; and a Town Major, 1,200. 

The "Troupes de la Marine," which formed the permanent military establishment of 
Canada, might be described as forming a part of the French Colonial militia. Francis 
Parkman, in his pre-eminently interesting and accurate volumes " Montcalm and Wolfe," 
speaking of this force says. " Though attached to the naval department they served on land, 
and were employed as a police within the limits of the colony, or as garrisons of the outlying 
forts, where their officers busied themselves more with fur trading than with their military 
duties. Thus they had become ill-disciplined and inefficient, till the hard hand of du Quesne 
restored them to order. They originally consisted of twenty-eight independent companies, 
increased in 1750 to thirty companies, at first of fifty, and afterwards of sixty-five men each^ 
forming a total of 1,950 rank and file. In March 1757, ten more companies were added. 


Their uniform was not unlike that of the troops attached to the French War department, 
being white with black facings. (The regular regiments from France which served in 
Canada, had facings of blue, red, yellow or violet.) The colonial troops were enlisted for the 
most part in France ; but when their term of sen-ice expired, and even before, in time of 
peace, they were encouraged to become settlers in the colony as was also the case with their 
officers, of whom a great part were of European birth. Thus the relations of the troupes de 
la marine with the colony were close ; and the}- formed a sort of connecting link between the 
troops of the line and the native militia." 


Twenty-four companies of the troupes de la marine, or colony troops took part in 
Drucour s gallant but unsuccessful defence of Louisbourg against Boscawen and Amherst in 

Though Acadia (New Brunswick and the peninsula of Nova Scotia) had been conquered 
by General Nicholson in 1710, and formally transferred by France to the British Crown three 
years later by the Treaty of Utrecht, in the spring of 1750 La Jonquiere issued a proclamation 
commanding all Acadians to take forthwith an oath of fidelity to the king of France, and to 
enroll themselves in the French militia, on pain of being treated as rebels. In 1755, when 
Monckton and Winslow captured the French fort of Beausejour, there was an organized 
British militia force in Acadia, but the only part of it on which any dependence could be laid 
was the Halifax militia, which really dated back to the founding of Halifax as a military 
settlement in June 1749 with a population of 2500 immigrants, including a goodly proportion 
of retired military officers and soldiers. 



S Warburton wrote "On the day that the French regular armies in Canada 
ceased to resist, Canada was a peaceful province of British America." 
France had played out her part in the history of the New World. 

Immediately on the reduction of Montreal, General Amherst 
established a military government for the preservation of the public 
tranquility, and divided the country into three districts, of Quebec, 
Montreal and Three Rivers. Over the first was placed General James Murray, 
General Thomas Gage was at the head of the second, and Colonel Ralph 
Burton was commandant of the third division. Within these districts he 
established several courts of justice, composed of militia officers of the country, 
who decided cases brought before them in a summary way, with an appeal 
to a court composed of officers of His Majesty s army. 

The capitulation of Canada to Britain was consummated on September 
8th, 1760, and the British Army took possession of Montreal the same day, De 
Levis, at De VaudreuiPs peremptory orders, surrendering the arms of the force 
under his command. British rule in Canada dates from that day, and within 
a fortnight from that date the first steps were taken towards establishing a 
Canadian militia under the British flag. On September igth, General Amherst in his capa 
city of first British governor of Canada instructed Colonel Haldimand to assemble the militia 
of Montreal who had served under the French regime at once, and order them to give up their 
arms. That done, provided they would take the oath of allegiance to the British Crown, the 
arms would be returned to them, or placed in an armoury, and the officers recommissioned on 
certain conditions. Clearly the intention was to continue the old militia system under the 
British flag. But, although the British conquerors appear to have had enough faith in the 
new fellow subjects secured by this triumph to allow them to retain the arms they had used 
with such good effect in support of the lost cause, the French Canadian militiamen appear to 
have had no heart for service under the standards of their traditional enemy. On March 25th, 
1764, Colonel Haldimand wrote to General Gage, the commander-in-chief, stating that he had 
experienced great difficulty in recruiting the militia force considered necessary for the defence 
of the newly acquired colony. He reported that he had succeeded, however, in enrolling a few 
militiamen and had given the command to M. deMontizambert, with M. de Richeville and a 
Mr. Smith as lieutenants. The first Canadian militia officer to thus obtain a British 
commission, was an ancestor to that well known and gallant military officer of to-day, Lieut.- 
Col. C. E. Montizambert, Assistant Inspector of Artillery, and Commandant of the Quebec 
Citadel, who commanded the artillery during the Northwest Rebellion of 1885. 

According to " Le Regne Militaire en Canada" (page 28) the placing of the adminis 
tration of the law, criminal and civil, in the hands of the officers of the militia was merely an 
honest attempt to place the administration of the French laws, the existence of which had been 


promised to the conquered people, in the hands of those considered to be the best versed in 
them. The commissions in the militia were generally held by the Seigneurs and other nota 
bilities of their districts, and these persons were not merely the best educated residents of 
their respective districts, but naturally the best informed on general and legal topics. At the 
same time they comprised the portion of the Canadian community which the British military 
officers, who found themselves placed at the head of affairs in the new colony, most highly 
appreciated. Like themselves, they had shown that they were brave soldiers, and the victo 
rious officers, with that strong professional regard which engenders a species of deep seated 
consideration, even for a hostile force, naturally felt disposed to rely upon the honour of 
brother soldiers, though lately bitter enemies. Your true soldier will always consider honour 
as inseparable from his profession. 


For three years, at least, subsequent to the conquest, the chief duties of the militia con 
sisted in the administration of justice. The courts were composed of militia officers, while 
sergeants of militia acted as the officers and criers of the courts. 

It is satisfactory to note that on retiring from the governorship of Montreal, Gage 
forwarded a letter to " Messrs, les Capitaines de la Chambre de milice de Montreal," dated 
Montreal October 1763, in which he wrote "I cannot help expressing the satisfaction that I 
have always derived from your conduct, during the time I have had the honour to be your 
chief ; and it becomes my duty before leaving your country to testify as to my lively recog 
nition of the services which you have rendered to your king and country. Continue to do 
your duty in advancing the public welfare, and not only increase the good reputation you have 

already acquired among your fellow countrymen, but earn what you will certainly not fail to 
receive, the gratitude and protection of the king." 

The first record I have been able to find of the enrollment of a battalion of militia under 
British authority in Canada is in an order issued by Governor Haldimand of Three Rivers 
dated March i2th, 1764. This order was addressed to "All the captains of militia for the 
enrollment of Canadian companies." The document read as follows : 


"Although I have already verbally informed yon of the desire with which His Majesty 
is possessed of ensuring the happiness of his subjects, and of the firm resolution which 
he has taken to bring back to reason some of the Indian Nations, whose evil spirit has 
revealed itself through treason and violence, and to compel them to ensure the return of 
a paying trade and peace so necessary to his peoples, I have deemed it advisable to inform 
you that for this purpose the Government has resolved upon adding five companies of 
Canadians to the troops to be engaged in this service. These companies will comprise 60 
men each. Two will be raised in the Government of Quebec, two in that of Montreal and 
one in that of Three Rivers and will be under the command of Canadian officers. Only 
those who, of their own free will, are determined to become subject of His Majesty will be 
enrolled in these companies. In recognition of, and as a reward for the good will of those 
who enroll themselves, there will be given twelve dollars in money to each ; volunteer, there 
will be distributed to them one coat, two pairs of Indian mocassins and a pair of mitts ; 
they will be furnished with arms, munitions and supplies diiring the whole time of the 
campaign. The pay for each man will be six English pence per day, and they will be 
accompanied by a priest to discharge the duties of his ministry. The service of these 
volunteers will end with the campaign, and after that each of them will be at liberty to 
return home. Such a step indicates in the Government confidence in the subjects of His 
Majesty. We are in the right in expecting that they will not only enroll readily, but will 
show great faithfulness to fulfill their engagements wherever they may be placed by 
circumstances and for the good of the service. They should act as much through honour and 
duty as through gratitude and through xeal in their own interest. Pending the time when 
you may be at liberty to publish this ordinance at the church door next Sunday, you will do 
all you can to render it public, more especially among the young men, so that they may be 
informed of all the conditions which are offered them." 

" Made and delivered at Three Rivers, under the seal of our arms, on the i2th of March, 

I?64 "(Signed) " FRED. HALDIMAND." 

The following year some trouble appears to have been developed over the mistaken ideas 
of some of the old militia officers as to the validity of the old French commissions, some of the 
old French officers performing the functions of their rank without authority. An ordinance 
proclaimed in November 1765 declared "Whereas several captains of the militia formerly 
established in this Province and afterwards continued until the establishment of Civil 
Government, within the same, pretend that their commissions and former authority of 
Captains of militia still continue and are in force, notwithstanding no ordinance of His 
Excellency the Governor in Council has ever been made for establishing or continuing them 
in office, and whereas the keeping np of a militia in this Province at this juncture is not 
necessary : 

" Be it therefore ordained and declared by the authority aforesaid that on the establish 
ment of British Civil Government in this Province, the militia before that time established in 
the same was thereby abolished and taken away to all intents and purposes whatsoever, and 


all power and "authority derived from them, or which any person or persons whatsoever might 
claim or pretend to claim by force or in virtue of any commission or other authority therein, 
did thereforward cease, and was thereby annulled and taken away, and any person or persons 
whatsoever acting or pretending to act under any commission or authority therein, was and 
were thereby and by means thereof dismissed and discharged from the same accordingly. 

" (Signed) 
" Quebec, 27 Nov. 1765." " J. MURRAY." 

Though the above order looks like a formal abolition of the militia, it appears that the 
militia officers who had been recommissioned to act as magistrates continued in office. 

On April 4th 1771, Quartermaster-General Robertson wrote to Colonel Haldimand from 
New York about the enrollment of two regiments in Canada to be officered by young Cana 
dians of good family. 


II ith permission of the Her.ild Pul-. Co., Montnul. 

While England s disaffected American colonists were as yet only contemplating open 
rebellion ; while they were yet hopeful of inducing the people of Canada to join them in an 
apparently inevitable appeal to arms, that clear headed and cautious soldier and good friend 
of Canada, Sir Guy Carleton, was laying the foundations for the first Canadian militia force 
which was actually to fight under the red cross banner of England. The situation Carleton 
had to face in 1774 and 1775 was an extremely critical one. 

The population of Canada consisted of some 70,000 colonists of French blood, and consi 
derably less than a thousand British colonists. Owing to the wars of the Empire in Europe 
and abroad the army of occupation in Canada had been reduced to a perilously insignificant 
force. As a matter of fact, according to Allison, (Hist, of Europe, chap. XCI), the whole 
military force of the Empire of every description did not amount to 20,000 men. 

Fervid appeals to the Canadians to participate in the impending revolution were circu- 

lated broadcast throughout the country through the agency of Thomas Walker, a. Montreal 
merchant who had, with an apparently deliciously exalted appreciation of his own importance 
and influence, undertaken to represent Canada in the newly instituted American colonial 
congress. Associated with this egotistical, self-appointed legislator was one Cazeau, another 
merchant of the same city, who had numerous business branches and agents throughout the 
colony. The ever attractive, and so much abused phrases of liberty and national indepen 
dence were dangled before the eyes of the Canadian people in flowery resolutions of Congress 
and finely worded, if reckless, appeals of prominent American agitators. 

At the first glance it appears remarkable that these appeals failed of producing their 
desired effect. Those appealed to to throw off their allegiance could have had little affection for 
the British tie. It was a mere trifle of fourteen years time since the ink had dried on that 
momentous document signed on one of the slopes of Mount Royal by M. de Vaudreuil and 
General Amherst by which Canada became a British colony, and the devoted colonists of 
France became, by the stern rales of conquest, subjects of victorious Britain. The very men 
to whom the irrepressible emissaries of the revolutionary American colonists were so seduct 
ively appealing had belonged to that heroic Canadian militia that had formed so conspicuous 
and useful a part of the armed forces with which Montcalm had succeeded so long, in the face 
of the crudest kind of misfortune and official neglect, in holding in check that irresistable 
tide of British invasion. The}- had, a proportion of them at least, fought valiantly under the 
yet venerated fleur-de-lys against the very red coated soldiers whose successes had imposed 
the British allegiance upon them. Not an insignificent proportion of the younger and more 
easily influenced part of the population consisted of sons of men who had sacrificed their lives 
for the, to them, sacred cause of French rule in that dreadful bush fight on the Monongahela, 
on the blood stained entrenchments along the shores of Lakes George and Champlain, in 
front of the desparately defended ramparts of Oswego, behind the trenches of Beauport, or on 
the immortal Plains of Abraham. 

And if the natural inclinations of the Canadian people, and the very blood in their veins, 
tended rather to make them welcome the opportunity to throw off the unaccustomed bond 
binding them to Britain, the treatment they had received at the hands of their conquerors had 
not been such as to reconcile them to the new order of things. Military despotism, followed 
by the attempt to summarily abolish the established jurisprudence of the colony might, at 
the time, have appeared to the country s new rulers to be not mereh- expedient but really 
humane, but it certainly, during the latter part of the decade immediately following the 
conquest, kept cruelly alive the race hatred felt by the high spirited but patient Canadian 
people for their conquerors. 

As late as 1773 a memorial had been sent to the king by a few of the seigneurs and 
burgesses claiming a right to participate in all public employments, military and civil. The 
memorialists remarked "All that the Canadians wish to enjoy, like the other subjects of His 
Majesty, are their rights and immunities as Britons; which the common law of England, 
indeed, assigned them." The following year an act was passed by the British parliament 
removing the more glaring of the grievances of the Canadians. 

When quitting Canada, M. de Vaudreuil, the colony s last French governor, according 
to the historian Garneau, paid this homage to the Canadian people in a letter to the French 
ministry. " With these beautiful and vast countries, France loses 70,000 inhabitants of a 
rare quality ; a race of people unequalled for their docility, bravery and loyalty." Loyal they 
had unquestionably been to their mother country, France, for it was as true then as today 
that blood is thicker than water. 

Would their loyalty to Britain, their old foe and late oppressor, a loyalty barren of any 
affectionate sentiments, a thing of short and forced growth, stand the test ? 


It was a momentous question, for without some aid from the population of the country, 
the fruits of Wolfe s great victory must have been thrown away, and Canada lost to Britain. 

Happily for General Carleton, as the French historian I have just quoted says, the 
Canadian clergy and seigneurs had become firmly bound to British interests through the 
confirmation of feudal tenures and the recognized right of tithing, and with these two orders 
of men inarched the burgess class in the towns, which was as yet, however, neither nemerous 
nor opulent. These classes resolved to resist every assault of the Anglo-Americans and to 
retain Canada for monarchic Britain. 

The proud consciousness of having done their duty robbed defeat of its bitterest sting. 
Though the fortune of war had been against them and Britain had won their country, they 


had won as much honour out of the prolonged contest as their conquerors. Many armies of 
conceited and quarrelsome colonials and of contract-raised, scandalously officered and poorly 
disciplined so-called regular regiments suffered defeat at the hands of the Canadian militia 
and the white-coated regulars of France, before the last of the flags emblazoned with the 
lillies of France fluttered down from their Canadian flagstaffs to make way for the Union Jack. 
To the rich harvest of imperishable glory reaped by the devoted and deserted supporters of 
the cause of the Bourbons during this, to them, disastrous campaign, the gallantry, the amazing 
hardihood, and the pathetic devotion of the Canadian militia fairly contributed the lion s 


share. There was no disgrace for such men as these in the final defeat of the cause for 
which they had so heroically, and, for long so successfully fonght. Now that they were 
called upon to rally to the support of the new flag which had been planted in their country 
in spite of their utmost efforts, there was no consciousness of inferiority, no jealous hatred of 
the conquerors who had so often felt their mettle, to prevent the leading French colonists 
from responding to the appeal of their loyalty with some enthusiasm. 

The masses of the Canadian people were not by any means enthusiastic, however. 
They had ever preserved in their hearts that hatred for the British race which they had 
contracted during long wars. But this national antipathy was general in its application to 
British people wherever born or located. They thus naturally had no preference as between 
the British of Britain and Canada, and the others of the race located in the Anglo-American 

Two things, in fact, combined to give the French Canadians a preference for Britain as 
against her American colonists. The latter had been the direct cause of the conquest of 
Canada, as the Canadians knew very well, and their Congress, in a moment of rashness, 
had violently outraged the public sentiment in the old French colony by a declaration against 
Catholicism and French jurisprudence. Carleton s least favourable expectation was, under 
the circumstances, that if the Canadians would not take up arms for Britain, neither would 
they fight against her. Such were the unpromising conditions under which the first general 
appeal to arms was made to the militia of British Canada. 

The principle having been laid down that the old laws of the vanquished people should 
subsist until their conquerors should substitute new, and the British parliament having 
failed to provide full details for the organization of a Canadian militia, Carleton appears to have 
been largely guided in his efforts to raise a militia by the usages of the French colonial 
officers, as Amherst s subordinates had been. He first appealed to the seigneurs to aid him 
in organizing the militia. Several of the seigneurs promptly promised that they would 
march against the rebels at the head of their tenants, but when they assembled their follow 
ers, explained to them the question at issue, and added that the government looked to the 
Canadians for warlike support, the latter flatly refused to fight saying : " We shall manifest 
our loyalty to the government we live under by a quiet and submissive life, but we will take 
no side in the present quarrels." In certain districts, some ardent, youthful seigneurs, trying 
the effect of menaces to constrain their tenants to follow their lead, were obliged themselves 
to flee precipitately. But in spite of this discouragement a force of Canadians was embodied 
during the winter of 1775, several companies at Montreal, Quebec and Three Rivers being 
the first corps organized at this time. 

Meantime affairs in Britain s older American colonies assumed a graver aspect day by 
day. Blood was shed at Lexington and Concord in April, 1775, and within a few days 
afterwards Colonel Warner, with a view, even at that earl} stage of affairs, of preparing 
for an expedition into Canada, obtained the mastery of Lake Champlain without any loss 
of men. The first invasion of Canada after its passing under British rule speedily followed. 
A detachment of revolutionary troops was despatched down that old route of invasion 
the Richelieu River, and St. Johns fell an easy prize about the end of May. 

The very day afterwards this important fortress was retaken by M. de Belestre at the 
head of eighty Canadian volunteer militiamen. The victory is one of great historical 
interest as the first recorded feat of arms of a force of Canadian militia fighting under the 
flag of England. They have fought under such auspices on many a blood stained 
battlefield since. 

Sir J. M. Lemoine, in his entertaining and historically interesting volume of Canadian 
sketches, " Maple Leaves," speaks as follows of this interesting event in the history of the 


Canadian Volunteer-Militia. " Some (of the fierce spirits of the ancient regime) formed 
part of the distinguished Canadians who, on the 8th of June, 1776, offered their services to 
Major Preston, at Montreal, to retake and hold Fort St. John from the Americans, and 
effectually did so on the loth of June, placing it into the hands of a detachment of the jth 
Royal Fusiliers, under Capt. Kineer. They were the Chevalier de Belestre, de Longueuil, 
de Lotbiniere, de Rouville, de Boucherville, de la Corne, de Labruere, de St. Ours, Perthuis, 
Hervieux, Gamelin, de Montigny, d Eschambault and others. For this service, General 
Carleton publicly thanked them. In September of the same year, this party, with the 
assistance of a number of Quebec and Three Rivers volunteers, viz : Messrs, de Montesson, 
Duchesnay, de Rigouville, de Salaberry, de Tonancour, Beaubien, Demusseau, Moquin, 


Lamarque, Faucher and others started for St. Johns to relieve a detachment of the /th and 
26th Regiments, then in charge of the fort, and who expected a siege, but after being 
beleaguered, the fort surrendered on the and of November to General Montgomery. The 
Canadians and the soldiers were carried away prisoners of war, Congress refusing to exchange 
the Canadians, " they being too much attached to the English government and too influential 
in their own country." Two, Messrs. Demontesson and de Rigouville, died prisoners of 
war ; de la Corne, Perthuis and Beaubien had been killed dxiring the siege ; de Lotbiniere 
had an arm shot off ; de Salaberry was twice wounded. The garrison under Preston made 
a gallant defense, successfully withstanding a fierce assault delivered during a severe 


snowstorm, but being compelled to surrender on honourable terms to a vastly superior 
force." Major Andre of the 26th Regiment, who was subsequently hanged as a spy by 
Washington, was a member of the brave garrison of St. Johns on this occasion. 

Despite its auspicious beginning, Carleton s first militia force was not altogether a 
brilliant success, but, in the end, its loyalty and courage proved the salvation of Canada. 
The new force was soon put to the test. Congress, at the solicitation of Colonel Arnold, 
who said he could take and hold the colony with 2,000 men only, decided to send an army 
against Quebec, the waterways to which lay open by way of Lake Champlain. Generals 
Schuyler and Montgomery with i ,000 men descended the Richelieu to St. Johns, but finding 
the defences formidable withdrew to Isle-aux-Noix. Arnold with another force of 1,000 men 
marched upon Quebec along the valleys of the Kennebec and Chaudiere. On the first 
report of invasion, Carleton directed troops to Lake Champlain. There were but 800 regular 
troops in all at his disposal. Clearly his chief dependence was the militia, but apart from 
the corps organized in the leading centres of population, the mimber of militia recruits 
offering was very small. The governor offered tempting conditions. For men who would 
volunteer for the war for each unmarried private he offered grants of 200 acres of land, 
married ones, 250 acres, besides 50 more for each of the children; the land to be held free 
of all imposts for 20 years. Yet these offers attracted few recruits. Carleton desired to 
succor St. Johns by means of the armed rural populations of the Montreal and Three Rivers 
districts, but nearly the whole militia of the district of Three Rivers refused to march at the 
command of the governor. Some few hundreds of rural royalists, responding to the call to 
arms, assembled at Montreal ; but, perceiving that Carleton was dubious of their fidelity, 
most of them returned to their homes. The Chambly people joined an American detach 
ment, and assisted in the capture of the fort at that place, but Carleton did not abandon hope 
of releiving the beseiged garrison of St. Johns. The fort there was only a poor affair, 
planking being the only shelter afforded from the beseigers fire, although the fort was the 
key of the frontier line of defence. Colonel Maclean, the commandant at Quebec led 300 of 
his militiamen as far as St. Denis, where he expected to be joined by Carleton with the 
Montreal militia, but the governor got no further than Longueuil, fearing to disembark, 
as he learned that some of his men contemplated joining the enemy. Maclean returned to 
Sorel, where nearly all of his men, being gained over by emissaries from the Chambly 
sympathisers, deserted to the enemy. This desertion, coupled with the inability of Carleton 
to rely upon his corps of 800 militia raised in the Montreal district, left Maclean with no 
alternative but to retreat to Quebec, and after a siege of 45 days, Fort St. Johns, with its 
garrison of 500 men, surrendered. About the same time an attempt was made to take 
Montreal by surprise by Colonel Ethan Allen and Major Brown. Allen with no men 
crossed to the Island of Montreal, and was assured of assistance from sympathisers in the 
city, but was encountered and captured near Longue Pointe by a force of 60 regulars and 
300 of the city militia commanded by Major Carden. St. Johns captured, Carleton realizing 
that with the population either apathetic or openly hostile, there was no chance of defending 
Montreal, embarked with the regular garrison, some hundred men, for Quebec, where he 
arrived after narrowly escaping capture at Three Rivers. Meanwhile Montreal surrendered, 
without a blow, to Mongomery, and Three Rivers followed suit. Quebec, the Capital, was 
the only place in Canada that remained under British rule. Its garrison was i ,800 strong, 
including 571 French Canadian and 326 British Canadian militiamen. In December the 
city was invested by the united armies of Mongomery and Arnold. The story of the siege, 
of the midnight assault on New Year s eve and of the death of Montgomery has passed into 
history. It is only necessary here to draw attention to the important part played in the 
repulse of the assault by the Canadian Militia. It was Captain Chabot, a militia officer, 


who gave the command to fire which swept the head of Montgomery s assaulting column 
away and laid the general himself low. A handful of Canadians opposed Arnold s column, 
holding their ground foot by foot with great obstinacy. When the Americans planted their 
scaling ladders against the inner barricade on St. James Street, a city militiaman named 
Charland, an intrepid and robust man, advanced amidst a shower of balls, seized the ladders 
and drew then inside the barricade. This post was held by Captain Dumas militia company, 
and its relief was finally effected by Captain Marcoux s company reinforced by a few 
regulars. The elder Papineau (Joseph), served as a volunteer in Captain Marcoux s company. 
Joseph Papineau, according to Garneau, "showed himself most zealous for the Royal 
cause during the whole period of the American Revolution. A Canadian officer, M. Lamothe, 


had brought into Canada some despatches from Lord Howe then commanding at New York, 
meant for General Carleton at Quebec, but addressed to the Seminarists of Montreal. The 
father of Louis J. Papineau, then a young man, accompanied Lamothe in carrying them to 
Quebec. Secreting the missives in hollow walking sticks, they took the road along the right 
bank of the St. Lawrence, avoiding the revolutionary soldiery and their Canadian sympa 
thisers, and passing on from parsonage to parsonage till they reached Quebec on the nth of 
March. Having delivered the despatches, they joined Captain Marcoux s company as 
volunteers, taking part in the defence of Quebec till the siege was raised." 

The repulse of the desperate attack upon Quebec unquestionably saved Canada for 
Britain, and without the aid of the Canadian militia it could never have been accomplished. 






In the spring, strong reinforcements were sent into Canada by both Congress and the British 
Government. The American invaders of Canada were either driven out of the Country or 
made prisoners, while a corps of the Canadian militia under Captains De Boucherville and 

Morin was attached to Bnrgoine s arm}- and participated 
in the nnfortnnate campaign about Lake George and the 

During the continuance of the war enforced military 
service was frequently imposed upon the Canadians, but 
after the conclusion of peace, no attention was paid to the 
development of the military resources of the colony. 

In 1 784 a memorial was presented to the Home 
Government by Mr. du Calvet, an ex-Montreal magistrate, 
whose name had been very prominent during the Ameri 
can invasion, soliciting, among other things, conservation 
of the old French laws, the extension of the habeas corpus 
act to Canada, the naturalization of the Canadians so as 
to endow them with British rights ; the liberty of the 
press and the creation of a provincial military establish 
ment, including a Canadian regiment of two battalions. 
After the granting of the constitution of 1791, in every 
parliamentary session the governors asked and obtained 
fresh powers for organizing a submissive militia, but the 
authority so granted appears to have been merely used to 
the extent of appointing officers. Lord Dorchester, before 
leaving Quebec for England, at the termination of his term as Governor-General in 1795, 
organized, or left orders to organize, a Canadian regiment of two battalions ; but this corps 
was disbanded afterwards, the home authorities judging that it was not prudent to train the 
colonists to arms after their experience with their old 
American colonists. 

In the library of the Provincial Parliament at Quebec 
is a series of the volumes of the " Almanach de Quebec," 
which published the militia lists annually, from 1796. 
These lists give the militia eve:i then a brave show, on 
paper, at any rate. The following list of the officers of 
the Montreal militia gives an idea of the organization 
which then existed: 

" First District of the City of Montreal Militia. 
" Field officers. Pierre N. Sevestre, Colonel ; Pierre 
Guy, Lieut-Colonel ; 

" Pierre Fortin and Etienne St. Dizier, Majors. 
" P. Valle, J. B. Adhemer, Jacques Hervieux, Charles 
Desery, J. Lacroix, Daniel Dupre, Captains. 
"J. B. Jobin, Surgeon. 

" Second District of the Montreal City Militia. 
" Field officers. St. Geo. Dupre, Colonel ; Louis Per- 
lier, Lieut-Col.; M. Blendeau, Major. 

" P. Lacoste, Charles Chaboillez, H. St. George, Ga 
briel Cote, J. B. Durocher, J. F. Perrault, Captains. 
" F. X. Bender, Surgeon." 





The militia which nominally existed was governed by two acts passed in 1784 and 1786, 
which were defective as they took the control of the force to a great extent out of the hands 
of the government. 

In 1803, when war broke out between Great Britain and France, the feeling of loyalty to 
Britain throughout not only the new rapidly settling new English speaking province of Upper 
Canada, but in the old French province of Lower Canada, was enthusiastic, and offers to raise 
volunteer corps were freely made. 

In 1807, the Americans, inspired by their persistent ambition to put an end to British 
rule on this continent, industriously propagated the report that the Canadians only awaited 
the unfurling of the " Stars and Stripes " in Canada to rise in a body against British rule. To 
contradict this libel on the Canadian people practically, the Acting Governor, Mr. Dunn, 
caused a grand military demonstration to be made. During the summer, one fifth of the 
militia were called out and trained, the ballotting for men and their training when enrolled, 
being carried out with the greatest spirit, giving the lie to the doubts which had been cast 
upon the loyalty of the people. At the same time the fortifications of Quebec were thoroughly 
overhauled by Colonel Brock, then commanding that garrison. 

In ballotting, young bachelors competed with one another to procure the service tickets 
of married men who drew them. Some men who were not drawn purchased tickets from 
others who were, and not a few married men refused to sell out. (Rogers.) When Sir 
James Craig arrived at Quebec he decided not to immediately organize the militia. Though 
the men had been selected by the ballot, he did not think it necessary to call them together, 
but he lauded the Canadians for the heroic spirit which they had manifested. 

In 1809, Sir James Craig, then governor, and who had commanded Carleton s advance 
guard at the expulsion of the American troops in 1776, dismissed from the Quebec militia five 
officers, on the ground that the step was necessary for His Majesty s service. The cause 
assigned for this action was that the governor could place no confidence in the services of 
persons whom he had good grounds to consider to be proprietors of a seditious and libellous 
publication (Le Canadien). They were Col. Panet, Capts. Bedard and Taschereau, Lieut. 
Borgia and Surgeon Blanchet. 




HE time when the Canadian militia was again to be called upon to assist in 
preserving Canada for Britain was rapidly approaching. On June the 
1 8th, 1812, the United States Congi-ess passed a bill empowering the 
President to declare war against Great Britain. The United States put 
175,000 men a number exceeding the total male population of British 
North America capable of bearing arms under arms at once. The 
Canadians of all races at once prepared for war with an activity and 
martial spirit which gave great promise of a successful issue. 

" When the war began," says Allison (Chapter XC, p. 91), " one only feeling 
of loyalty animated the whole inhabitants of the British North American posses 
sions. Above forty thousand militia in arms were ready to defend their territory 
from invasion, and the King of England had nowhere more loyal subjects than 
the French inhabitants on the shores of the St. Lawrence." And the situation 
was such as to call all of the loyalty, the courage and native vigour of the Canadian 
people into requisition. Britain was engaged in Europe, almost single-handed, in fighting 
for the world the cause of national freedom. Three days after war was declared by the 
United States, Wellington crossed the Agueda to commence the glorious Salamanca 
campaign. The strength of the British power was employed in the Spanish Peninsula, the 
East and W r est Indies, Africa and Sardinia. Her navy had to blockade nearly all the 
principal poi ts and rivers of Etirope, she was compelled to keep fleets in the Mediterranean 
and Baltic, in the Pacific and off the coast of India. So many ships did she have to maintain 
afloat, that she was compelled, in spite of her immense resources in the wav of seamen, to 
send most of her ships to sea imperfectly manned. At no period in her history had she such 
limited means to spare for a struggle on the American continent. 

How the Canadian militia, fighting in the ranks beside the regular soldierly of Britain, 
covered themselves with glory in the campaigns that followed, is a matter of common history. 
Detroit was captured by a force which included a large proportion of Upper Canada militia ; 
members of the same force fairly divided the honours of the glorious victory of Queenstown- 
Heights with the regular regiments. The victory of Chateauguay, where a mere handful of 
men, from 300 to 400 in number, discomfitted an American army of 7,000 men, causing their 
precipitate retreat, was won almost unaided, by the militiamen of Canada, French Canadians 
from Lower Canada fighting shoulder to shoulder with their English speaking fellow coun 
trymen from the Upper Province. Lacolle Mill, Oswego and Lundy s Lane, the latter being 
the action where 2,800 men defeated an army of 5,000, were three of the more famous of the 
many bloody fields on which the Canadian militia gallantly fought before the last of the 
American invaders were Inirled from the soil of Canada. 

Since 1791 Upper and Lower Canada had been separate provinces with district militia 
organizations. During the progress of the war, considerable ameliorations were made in both 
provinces in the militia laws of 1784 and 1786, which, though a decided improvement in 


I ^ 












mail} respects on the onerous systems which prevailed before the colony had been accorded 
constitutional government in 1774, were yet faulty, and bore unjustly in many cases on the 

On the aSth of May, 1812, Sir George Prevost organized four battalions of embodied 
militia in Lower Canada ; and a regiment of voltigeurs was raised, the latter being placed 
under the command of Major De Salaberry, a French Canadian gentleman who had served 
with distinction in the 6oth Regiment of Foot, organized in Britain s old American colonies 
during the French war, as the Royal American Regiment. 

As soon as war was declared the regular troops were moved to Montreal, and Quebec 
was garrisoned by the militia. At Montreal, the militia also turned out for garrison duty. 
On the 6th of August the whole militia were commanded to hold themselves in readiness for 
embodiment. A military epidemic seized young and old ; but there was an exception to the 
rule of martial enthusiasm. In the Parish of Pointe Claire, on Lake St. Louis, some young 
men, who had been drafted into the embodied militia, refused to join their battalions. 
Of these, four were apprehended ; but one was rescued, and it was determined by his 
neighbours to organize a party to liberate such others of their friends as had already joined 
the depot of the embodied militia of the district at Laprairie. Accordingly, on the following 
day, some three or four hundred persons assembled at Lachine for this purpose ; but it soon 
appeared that the trouble was due to a misunderstanding. The habitants refused to believe 
the assurances of the magistrates that the militia law was simplj- being enforced. They 
shouted " Vive le Roi " and announced their readiness to serve in the field provided they 
were regularly called out by the governor, but held that the embodiment had been done 
without authority. As the rioters refused to budge, two pieces of artillery and a company 
of the 49th Regiment, which had arrived from Montreal, confronted the crowd. The Riot 
Act, after great provocation, was read, and after the troops and rioters had fired several 
volleys over each others heads, the soldiers were ordered to shoot into the mob, and one man 
was killed and another dangerously wounded. The mutineers then dispersed, leaving some 
of the most daring among them to keep up a straggling fire from the bushes. The military 
made thirteen prisoners, and as night was setting in, left for Montreal. Next day, four 
hundred and fifty of the Montreal Militia marched to Pointe Claire, and from thence to 
St. Laurent, where they captured twenty-four of the mutineers and took them to Montreal. 
But the Pointe Claire habitants bitterly repented the resistance which they had made to the 
militia law, and many of them craved forgiveness, which was readily given. 

One of the first measures decided upon by Congress was the capture of Montreal. 
Strategy proper, and political strategy alike justified the attempt, and a powerful and well 
equipped army of 10,000 men was concentrated around Champlain, N. Y., and placed under 
the command of General Dearborn. De Salaberry was entrusted with the command of a line 
of outposts established along this side of the line. An advance base was established at 
Lacadie. The force at this point consisted, according to Kingsford, of the flank companies 
of the 8th, looth, and io3rd Regiment of Foot, the Canadian Fencibles, the flank companies 
of the embodied militia, and a six-gun battery of artillery. 

During the night of November 2oth, a column of some 1200 Americans made a recon 
naissance in force into Canadian territory, and came to grief at Lacolle, where the}- found 
their progress opposed by a picquet of some 500 militia and Indians. Through their faulty 
dispositions for the attack, the invaders fired into their own men, the result being an 
immediate retreat. The whole militia of Lower Canada was at once called out, and the flank 
companies of the Montreal militia regiments and a troop of militia dragoons crossed the St. 
Lawrence to Longueuil and Laprairie. The Pointe Claire, Riviere du Chene, Vaudreuil 
and Longue Pointe Battalions were ordered from headquarters at Lachine to cross Caugh- 





nawaga and march to Lacadie. Under orders dated at Lachiiie, November i8th, the ist, 2nd 

and 3rd Battalions of Montreal Militia were ordered to march for the front on the following 
at 8 a. in., i o a. m., and noon respectively. Dearborn, after reflecting upon the affair at 

Lacolle, and appreciating the significance of the spirit 
shown by the people of the Province, retreated upon 
Plattsburgh and Burlington, Vt., and went into winter 

During this campaign, steamboats were used for the 
transportation of troops and military stores between 
Quebec and Montreal, among the vessels so employed 
being the " Accomodation," the pioneer St. Lawrence 
steamer, which was launched at Montreal in 1809, by Mr. 
John Molson. Was this the first occasion on which steam 
power was pnt to nse in military operations ? 

Up to the last campaign of the war, when several of 
Wellington s victorious Peninsula regiments were sent to 
Canada, the Home government was unable to send 
anything like an adequate force of regular troops to 
America. Speaking of the second campaign of the war, 
Allison says: "In 1813 the absorbing interest of the 
contest, yet doubtful and undecided, in the Peninsula, and 
the urgent necessity of sending off every sabre and 
bayonet that could be spared to the army of Wellington, 
rendered it a matter of impossibility for Britain to 

despatch an adequate force to the Canadian frontier, and compelled the Mother Country, 

how reluctantly soever, to intrust the defenses of those provinces mainly to the bravery and 

patriotism of their own inhabitants." 

During this year (1813) Major Mackay of the Upper 

Canada militia with 100 men detached from the little 

garrison at Fort Michillimackinac succeeded by extra 
ordinary gallantry in wresting from the enemy the whole 

district about 500 miles to the westward, and advancing 

the British standards to the Mississippi, captured a fort 

erected by the Americans, and maintained himself in it. 

At this time Sir George Prevost s force, covering a frontier 

of 900 miles from Sorel to Fort St. Joseph did not exceed 

3,000 regular soldiers and 30,000 militia. The United 

States boasted of having 800,000 men under arms. 

The Canadian Militia, Voltigeurs, Chasseurs, Drivers, 

Voyagers, Dorchester Dragoons, and the Battalion Militia, 

in both provinces, were, by a general order issued on the 

ist of March, 1816, disbanded on the 24th of that month, 

not a little proud of Detroit and the River Raisin exploits, 

of the battles of Queenstown, Stoney Creek, Chateauguay, 

Chrystler s Farm, Lacolle and Lundy s Lane, and of the 

capture of Michillimackinac, Ogdensburg, Oswego, and 

Niagara by assault. 

During this war the first English speaking militia battalion was organized in Montreal, 

and it was officially designated " The First Battalion, Montreal Militia." It has been urged, 




and with some show of reason that the present First or Prince of Wales Regiment, the actual 
senior infantry regiment of the service, shoxild date its existence back to the organization of 
this battalion. True, the old 1812 regiment was disbanded after the war and apparently ceased 
to exist, but many of the historical regiments in the British service have breaks of many 
years in their historical records, and since reorganization they have been even allowed to 
claim the honors gained bv the old disbanded regiments which bore their old numerals or 
designations. The following order dated Montreal, May 22nd, 1811, gives a very clear idea 
of the composition of this battalion : 


Notice is hereby given to all persons residing within the City and Banlieu of Montreal 
and who by law are bound to enroll themselves as Militiamen that they forthwith enter their 
names with one or other of the captains or officers commanding companies in the First Battalion 
of said Militia, observing that by instructions from the commander-in-chief of the Province, 
Canadians (French) are not considered subjects to serve in the First Battalion, but subjects 
and residents of all other denominations are bound thereto, &c., &c., &c. 
By order of the Colonel Commanding, 

Capt. and Adjt. First Batt. M. M. 

Captain Griffin was afterwards first cashier of the Bank of Montreal, and Griffintown 
was named after his family. 

When peace was declared, the whole militia force was mustered, the arms, equipments, 
etc., returned into stores and the officers and men relieved from further service. 

Canada had shown herself as impregnable to the arms of her republican neighbours as 
her people were proof against the seduction of their principles. The United States had 
entered upon the war in the hope of wresting Canada from Britain in the hoiir of her 
nescessity, but all they gained was to see their capital taken and its public buildings destroyed^ 
their commerce ruined, their harbours sealed, their flag swept from the ocean. Despite their 
successes in several naval duels in which United States frigates defeated their out-classed 
and under-manned British antagonists, the Americans sustained the complete and permanent 
destmction of their immense carrying trade. During the first year of the war the public 
revenue of the United States sank from twenty four millions of dollars annually to eight 

Before the conclusion of the treaty of peace not a single American post or sentry 
remained on Canadian soil, while the Union Jack flew over Fort Michillimakinac and other 
points in what is now the State of Michigan (General Strange). 

As Kingsford puts it in his history, " In less than two years from the first declaration of 
hostilities, the United States were glad to offer terms of peace, not on the conditions which 
had been paraded as indispensable to justify war, but with the remembrances of reverses 
which no specious declamation can efface, or remove from record." 

Four companies of volunteers existed in Montreal in 1812, and they are reported to have 
been a sort of corps-d elite within the ranks of the First Militia battalion. Some of the living 
veterans of the militia force, however, say that from what they remember the veterans of the 
war of 1812 to have said, the volunteer companies were a distinct organization from the 
militia battalion. The truth is, I believe, that the volunteer companies, though given a 
certain independant organization, were really a part of the militia battalion, their commanding 
officer, holding only the rank of Major and consequently coming under the command of the 
officer commanding the regimental district and the Militia Battalion. The}- were organized 









" to perform garrison duties voluntarily, or to take the field if necessary." Page 76 of the 
Quebec Almanach for 1813 reads as follows : 

Four volunteer Companies of the First Militia Battalion of Montreal. (Quatre 
" Compagnies Volontaires du Premier Bataillon, Milice de Montreal.) 

" James Caldwell, Major Commandant. 

" Captains, James Dunlop, John Richardson, John Forsyth, John Ogilvy. 

Lieutenants, David Ross, Thomas Blackwood, George Gillespie, Hart Logan, 
" Alexander Allison, George Garden, William Hallowell, Thomas Thain. 

" Ensign, James Leslie. Thomas B. Ahern, Adjutant." 

Page 87 of the same number of the Quebec Almanach reads as follows : 

First Battalion of Montreal. (Premier Bataillon de Montreal.) 

Hon. Jas. McGill, Colonel; Alexander Auldjo, Lieut.-Colonel; Daniel Sutherland, Major. 

" Captains, Alexander Henry, Francis Desrivieres, Francis Badgley, David David, 
" Samuel Gerrard. 

Lieutenants, James Woolrich, Stephen Sewell, Thomas Yeoward, Munge Kay, 
William Hunter, Myer Michaels, Robert Armour. 

Ensigns, Andrew Porteous, Peter Harkness, Andrew Patterson, David Ogden, Arthur 
: Webster, John McTarvish. 

" Capt. Griffin, Adjutant; Thomas Busby, Quartermaster; George Selby, Surgeon." 

It is unquestionably difficult to understand how, in spite of the separate organization, 
the volunteer companies can have been considered as quite distinct from the militia battalion, 
bearing the official title they did. At any rate there is no doubt about the fact that a 
"volunteer corps" existed within the First Montreal Militia Battalion in 1826 and 1827, 
and drilled regularly. The Quebec Almauach for 1827 gives the officers of the First 
Montreal Battalion as follows : 

ist Division of the ist Battalion of the City of Montreal : 

D. Sutherland, Lieut.-Col., Commandant ; F. Desrivieres, Lieut.-Colonel ; Francis 
Badgley, Major; Geo. Garden, Major; Hy. Griffin, Capt. and Adjt. ; J. Hettrick, Lt. and 
Quartermaster ; Geo. Selby, Surgeon. 

"Captains: D. Ross, W. Hallowell, S. Sewell, Jos. Shuter, Austin Cuvillier, Win. 
Hunter, Thos. Blackwood, Thos. Thain, Wm. Blackwood, Benjamin Hart, James Millar. 

Lieutenants : S. S. Bridge, A. L. McNider, J. Jamieson, Wm. Stephens, J. McKenzie, 
Thos. Molson, John Porteous, H. S. Forsyth, Charles Hoofstetter, Richard Gerrard, Wm. 
Wilson, Chas. Gethings, J. B. Anderson, Wm. Peddie, P. M. Rossiter. 

;< Ensigns : Issac Jones, Jas. Fleming, Robt. Froste, S. Spragg, R. Cowie, Chas. Stewart, 
J. B. Forsyth, P. Hoofstetter. 

2nd Division of the ist Battalion of the City of Montreal : 

;i Robt. Griffin, Lieut.-Col. ; J. Forsyth, S. Gerrard, Majors ; P. McGill, Capt. and Adjt. ; 

Thos. Gibb, Ensign and Quartermaster; A. F. Holmes, Surgeon; John Dyde, Sergt-Major. 

" Captains : Robt. Armour, A. Porteous, A. A. Turner, A. Webster, Jas. Leslie, Thos. 

Busby, Geo. Auldjo, W. Molson, Norman Bethune (Volunteer Rifle Company), Geo. Moffat, 

James Fraser. 

Lieutenants : Jas. Young, J. Brown, J. Boston, J. Torrance, J. Fleming, John Young, 
T\ Penn, Robt. Jones, J. Logan, A. Shaw, J. Hallowell, Shaw Armour, J. C. Grant 
(Volunteer Rifle Company), James Scott (Volunteer Rifle Company), John Smith 
(Volunteer Rifle Company), John Gerrard, M. Scott, F. Griffin." 

The other Montreal Militia corps at this time were the 2nd City of Montreal Battalion, 
Lieut.-Col. J. Herireux ; 3 rd Battalion, Jean Bouthillier, Commanding ; Montreal Troop of 
Cavalry, George Gregory, Major Commanding. 



THE MILITIA OF 1837-38. 

S was recently stated by a late Minister of Militia, the Canadian Militia 
when wanted are wanted badly, and when their duty has been performed 
they are forgotten or neglected. While popular agitation in Canada 
against the family compact and the bureaucrats was attaining its violent 
stage in 1827, a new element of trouble excited the popular mind to fury. 
This was a declaration by the Attorney General of Lower Canada that 
as the constitutional militia laws had then lapsed and not been renewed, 
the ancient ordinances for embodying the colonial forces necessarily 
revived ; and Lord Dalhousie, the Governor General, following this 
announcement, was proceeding to re-institute the old colonial system of 
Colonial defence. As some of the militia officers refused to command, 
others to obey, not a few were dismissed altogether. Still a great majority of 
the militiamen conformed to the law by attending at drill. The militia had 
apparently been neglected since the war, a fact due in some measure no doubt 
to the long peace in Europe allowing Britain to maintain a large regular 
force in Canada. According to the debate on the army estimates in the 
Commons there were 6,000 British soldiers in Canada in 1827. 

In 1829 the Quebec assembly turned its attention to the old militia 
ordinances, and decided to send an address to the King protesting against the revival of those 
laws. Before Sir James Kempt, the succeeding Governor, was replaced by Lord Aylmer, in 
1830, he began a desired re-organization of the militia, and restored to their rank some officers 
who had been cashiered. 

It was not long after this that it became apparent that the agitation for full constitu 
tional government would result in bloodshed. In 1835 the Montreal Constitutional 
Association resolved to organize district committees in each quarter of the city, in case 
union and force became necessary. It raised spontaneously a body of volunteer riflemen, the 
members asking for the recognition of their corps by the Governor. That official, however, 
witheld his sanction, and the corps, which its organizers proposed to call the " British Rifle 
Legion," was afterwards dissolved at his request. One of the conditions of service of this 
corps was that the privates should elect their own officers. The anxiety of the loyalists to 
organize for defense was natural even then, and it became more pronounced as the agitation 

During the summer of 1837 warlike preparations were in progress at St. Denis, St. 
Charles, St. Eustache, Berthier and Lacadie. L. J. Papineau, Wilson, Lacoste and some of 
the real leaders and cooler heads of the Quebec party were opposed to armed resistance to 
the constituted authority, but the prevailing excitement was driving their followers swiftly 
and surely into open rebellion. Many of the leaders of the agitation were deprived of their 
commissions in the militia, and the authorities armed trustworthy citizens to enable order to 
be maintained. General Sir John Colborne, as soon as he assumed command of the troops 


in Canada armed a part of the male population of Montreal and Quebec, organizing volunteer 
corps of infantry, cavalry, and artillery. Six hundred volunteers were armed and equipped 
in a few days time. But this is anticipating somewhat. 

On the loth November 1837, Lieut.-General Sir John Colborne removed his head 
quarters from Sorel to Montreal, where he and his family took up their residence. On the 
same day, the first force of troops left Montreal on service. 

The patriots were using intimidation as a means of disorganizing the constitutional 
system and forced magistrates and others holding the Royal Commission to resign. 
This was being carried on extensively in St. Johns and its vicinity, and to put a stop to this 
a detachment of Montreal Volunteer Cavalry under command of Captain Glasgow, of the 
Royal Artillery, was despatched there. Upon arriving at St. Johns a large body of armed 
habitants was found posted on the opposite side of the Richelieu river. Captain Glasgow 
moved across the bridge towards them, accompanied by a couple of his men, and demanded to 
know the cause of their assembling. The}- answered that if he did not immediately retire 
they would fire upon him. He then contented himself with taking possession of the St. 
Johns end of the bridge, and reported to Montreal, where the news caused great excitement 
as this was the first armed body reported in open revolt. 

The state of affairs was now regarded as truly alarming, and while regular troops were 
being hurried up from the Maritime Provinces and Ontario, authorization was given for the 
organization of three brigades of volunteers in Montreal. The first brigade consisted of 
the Montreal Cavalry (Major David) which had two troops in the city and one at Lachine, a 
company of artillery (Major Boston, Commanding) ; and the Montreal Rifles, Major Griffin, 
(Adjutant of the ist Montreal Militia during the war of 1812), three companies. The second 
brigade consisted of the Montreal Light Infantry (Lt.-Col. Benjamin Holmes) six companies, 
and the Queen s Light Dragoons (Capt. W. Jones) one troop. The third brigade consisted 
of three battalions of " Ward Associations " which drilled less and took less interest in volun 
teering than the other corps, but who would have been useful and willing if called upon. 

These corps were soon up to full strength, and the whole British population and many 
loyal French went in for soldiering with enthusiasm. All the available halls and warehouses 
were pressed into service as drill halls, and the volunteers drilled night and day. Several 
whose names have since become familiar in the Militia, including Lieut.-Col. Fletcher, 
C.M.G., joined the Light Infantry. That corps used to drill every afternoon on the Champ 
de Mars, and every evening in the old St. Ann s market, on the site of the present one. 
Each corps had a sergeant from one of the regular regiments attached as drill instructor, 
and a few weeks of such hard work as the} put in speedily got them into very good shape 
indeed. The Government furnished these corps with flint-locks and the volunteers found it 
no small matter to master the necessarily complicated manual of those days with the orders 
" open pans," " shut pans," " draw ramrods," " ram down cartridges," and the rest of it. The 
accoutrements were old black ones, used previously in the American war. They were very 
heavy, with cross belts, with an oval piece of brass where they crossed. They were not served 
with uniforms the first year, but supplied themselves with blue suits with pea jackets. 
Each company had distinguishing trouser stripes. Those of the Scotch company of the 
Light Infantry were of plaid. When the winter set in they were supplied with military 
overcoats and immense fur caps. 

In the early winter these companies used to practice skirmishing on the ice. So heavy 
was the demand for swords that the supply entirely gave out, and the volunteer officers were 
in great straits to provide themselves with this deemed necessary badge of authority and 
means of defence. The only place where a supply could be obtained was England, but, there 
being no steamships and cables then, it would take several months before an order could be 










met from there, so the officers had to do the best with what they could get. Family collec 
tions and warehouses were routed out and everything resembling a sword was secured at 
any cost, and pressed into Her Majesty s service. Poignards and cutlasses were deemed 
quite fashionable, while one or two officers who had curved Turkish scimitars girt at their 
sides were envied by less fortunate brethren in arms who had to content themselves with 
home-made swords. As soon as the volunteer corps were in any sort of shape, they were 
called into service, for the duties depending upon the garrison were very heavy. The 
volunteers received no pay in 1837, DUt l &3% were allowed two shillings and six pence a 
day while on duty. 

The excitement kept up until 1839 an d the volunteers had their share of duty with the 

Lieut. -Col. Theodore Lyman some time ago gave the following information about the 
militia of 1837-38 to the writer : " When the rebellion of 37 broke out, Montreal, and in fact 
the whole of Canada, had very little in the way of military protection. The position was 
very critical indeed. There were only four or five regiments in Canada, the First Royals, 
i6th, 24th, 32iid and 66th. In the Montreal District the only volunteer corps were a troop 
of cavalry at Lachine, commanded by Captain Penner, a troop in Montreal under command 
of Colonel David, and a rifle company in Montreal under command of Major de Bleury, after 
whom Bleury street is named. I joined this Company. We were not given arms by the 
Government, but the gunsmiths vised to loan us the muskets they had in stock, and we used 
to drill with them and also parade the streets at night. We supplied ourselves with a sort 
of frock-coat which we used to wear to our work. At that time we had a miserable set of 
useless watchmen, and it was found a necessity for our company to patrol the streets to 
prevent loyal citizens from being abused. Whenever an attack was made by the Radicals 
upon the Constitutionalists the watchmen were never to be found. When the authorities 
realized that they had a rebellion on hand they at once authorized the enrollment of 
volunteer corps. The cavalry was increased to two troops, Captain Charles Ermatinger 
having command of one, and Captain Sweeney of the other. Colonel David was given 
command of the whole. An old Garrison artillery corps, which had been allowed to collapse, 
was reorganized under command of Major John Boston. The Montreal Rifles were increased 
to three companies, Major Griffin having the supreme command. The companies were 
commanded by Captains de Bleury, Leclerc and Blackwood. This was a well drilled corps, 
having an old army sergeant-major for adjutant." 

Ex- Aid. T. D. Hood was also a member of the Rifles and related to the writer some of 
his experiences during the Rebellion which showed that the battalion did a fair share of 
active service in those stirring times. He said: "When the excitement of 1838 began, 
eleven of us in the Rifles were ordered to take charge of the boat to Laprairie. Of the 
eleven I am the only one now living. She, however, got aground, and we were transferred 
as a guard to the steamer " St. Louis" which was under orders for Sorel with despatches for 
Major Johnston of the 66th then in command there. When we reported, the Major told us 
he was under orders to march via St. Ours, St. Denis and St. Charles, to Belceil, and to our 
great delight ordered us for his advance guard. The " St. Louis " went up the Richelieu 
abreast of us and we slept on board her at night. I recollect that we were warned to keep a 
sharp lookout upon the Captain, as he was accused of being a rebel, and it was understood 
among us that if he did anything shady, such as running aground, we would shoot him 
upon the spot. If I mistake not, we told him this, and pretty plainly too. Ours was a very 
unpleasant task during this march, the only relieving feature being the excitement. The 
object of the expedition was to search for prisoners and arms, and to us of the advance guard 
was entrusted this work, the 66th being a sort of backing for us. We had a stack of 


warrants a foot high, but we were not able to execute half of them. As we approached, the 
poor frightened people either hid or ran away, leaving everything behind them. We entered 
nearly all the houses and were rewarded by securing large quantities of firearms and pikes, 
as well as sixty prisoners. The latter were generally hidden away when captured either in 
cupboards, garrets or attics, under beds, or stowed away in the hay in the barns. When 
discovered they very rarely resisted." 

It was at St. Eustache, where Sir John Colborne inflicted such a crushing defeat upon 
the rebels of the Northern counties, that the Rifles really smelled powder during the 
Rebellion. A well known and prominent citizen of Montreal who was in the St. Eustache 
detachment of the corps, gives the following version of the part the}- bore in the action : 
We had a great deal of garrison duty to perform during the earliest stages of the rebellion. 
I remember well how proud we all felt when our company first took over the main guard as 
it was the first time volunteers had been entrusted with the duty. We were anxious to 
proceed to the front and take part in the more active 
operations of the year. You can imagine then with 
what satisfaction the most enthusiastic of us learned 
that Sir John Colborne had decided upon taking one 
company of the Rifles with him to St. Eustache. A 
company of eighty or a hundred men was ordered for 
the duty and was to be composed of volunteers from the 
three companies. The requisite number of men was 
soon obtained, and we started on the morning of the 
twelfth of December. Our company was commanded 
by Captain J. P. Leclerc, a French Canadian loyalist, 
and as far as I can remember the lieutenants were 
Messrs. Lewis Moffatt, son of the late Honourable 
George Moffatt, and he who later became Chief Justice 
Meredith. About a foot of snow had fallen and there 
was excellent sleighing, the baggage of the force being 
drawn on sleighs. We of course expected hard fighting, 
as the rebels in the northern counties had been left 
pretty well to themselves while the uprising on the 
Richelieu was being suppressed. Every precaution 
was taken on the march to prevent surprise, and we 
soon realized what it was to be on active service. We arrived the same evening at St. 
Martin s on Isle Jesus and halted there for the night. 

The force was divided into two brigades. Our company along with the First Royals 
formed a separate brigade under Colonel Wetherall, the victor at St. Charles, while the 32nd 
and 83rd Regiments formed the other brigade under command of Colonel Maitland, of the 32nd. 
When we arrived at St. Martin s we were billeted out. Colonel Wetherall sat on horseback 
in the middle of the road, and picking out the sergeants and corporals, he told them which 
houses they and their squads were to occupy. The squad I belonged to occupied a farmer s 
house, and we passed a rather uncomfortable night. Our company was composed of spirited 
young fellows, generally gentlemen, and we enjoyed the novelty of the thing and went in for 
fun. We had little rest, however, for some of the more jolly fellows would sooner keep up 
the fun than go to sleep, and those who would have liked to sleep could not. Early the next 
morning we were roused, and fell in for our march to St. Eustache. The thermometer was 
sixteen degrees below zero, and we found it bitterly cold while waiting, drawn up beside the 
road, before starting. After we had proceeded a few miles we had to halt and again form up 





along side of the road to allow tlie Lieutenant-General and staff, who had left Montreal after 
us, to pass. We then went on again. Instead of proceeding straight on to St.Enstache, we 
left the road and crossed the Northern branch of the Ottawa on the ice three miles below St. 
Eustache. We had a train of sleighs half a mile long and all got safely across except a 
couple of the heaviest. The heavy guns of the artillery also broke through, horses and all. 
Large parties of men soon set to work, however, and got them out. 

" When we were about seven or eight hundred yards from the village we were formed up 
in a field just off the Ste. Therese road. The Royals and some of the artillery, with the 
rocket battery were drawn up along side of us, while the other brigade went round the back 
of the village. This was about half past twelve, and shortly after we had formed up I noticed 
a puff of smoke from the nearest tower of the church and heard a loud report. It was stated 
that the rebels had a four-pounder gun which they had obtained off the steamer Canadian 
Patriot, at Montreal, and we thought that the smoke and report must have been occasioned 
by the discharge of this. A private engaged in a battle cannot see much of what is going 
on nor understand everything, and I was not able to follow all of the movements up. 
However, I will tell you what I did see. Soon after we were drawn up in the field the rocket 
battery was got into action and several rockets were fired at the church, presumably to 
attempt to set it on fire. These missiles, however, came near being as dangerous to us as to 
our enemies. They were fired close alongside us from the ordinary military tubes. The 
first rocket went all right for a hundred yards or so, and then suddenly turned and came 
back straight for us. The danger was serious, and Colonel Wetherall shouted the order for 
us to lie down. The gallant Colonel was so anxious at this moment that he even accompanied 
the order with a big D\ His impressive delivery of the order had the desired effect upon 
us and the Royals, however, and we dropped to the ground, while the i-ocket went spinning 
overhead like a great fiery devil." 

The Rifles participated in the general advance of the main body of infantry upon the 
church, joining in the charge upon and capture of the church and convent, and entered those 
buildings with the Royals and the 32nd. This gentleman relates that when he and his 
comrades entered the church it was already in flames. The Rifles were under fire all through 
the action and had one or two minor casualties. The company made several prisoners during 
the fight, and was complimented upon its conduct in action by the regular officers present. 
My informant subsequently served in the Rifle Rangers. 

The Rebellion in Upper Canada met the same fate as that in the Lower province. 
Before the uprising actually broke out the authorities knew that the malcontents were drilling, 
but to the very last did not believe that they would rise in arms. Early in 1837 there were 
a few troops stationed in Toronto, but as the dissatisfaction in the Lower province became 
more pronounced the} were moved to Kingston, to be available if needed in Lower Canada, 
and Toronto, the seat of the provincial government, was left wholly without military 
protection. Several thousand stands of arms recently received from the arsenals at Kingston 
were placed in the City Hall under guard of two constables. Toronto was situated very 
much like Montreal at this crisis, being the centre of the most disaffected section of the 
province. But while the citizens of Montreal, at the first appearance of danger, had enrolled 
themselves into volunteer companies, practically nothing to protect the city had been done 
in Toronto, and that city, unlike Montreal, had no garrison of regular troops. During 1836, 
Lieut. -Col. Fitzgibbon had, under Sir John Colborne s auspices, formed a drill corps for such 
young men of Toronto as desired military instruction. A handful of well-connected young 
men had availed themselves of the opportunity. The Colonel was an Irishman of humble 
origin who had enlisted in the regular army as a private soldier and had won a commission 
by energy and pluck. He fought in many a bloody battlefield both in Europe and during 


the war of 1812 in America. Among his gallant exploits during the latter war was the 
capture of an American force of 450 infantry, 50 cavalry and two guns, with only forty-six 
men of the 49th Regiment of Foot, in which gallant corps he was at the time serving as 

On retiring from the army he attached himself to the militia, and, at the time treated of, 
held the appointment of Deputy Adjutant General. He was the only man in authority in 
the upper province who appears to have suspected that there would be a rebellion, and but 
for him it is very likely that Toronto would have been captured by the rebels, who under W. 
Lvon Mackenzie, actuallv established themselves in force at a place which has since become 
historical (Montgomery s Tavern) a few miles from Toronto, before the authorities would 
believe that there was real trouble afoot. Two lives had been taken, one on either side, 
before news of the rebellion got into Toronto. Then 200 of the citizens enrolled themselves 
as volunteers. The chance of taking Toronto by surprise had failed, but on Tuesday, 
December the 5th, 1837, with between 700 and 
800 men, Mackenzie and Lount advanced from 
Montgomery s upon the city. In the outskirts, 
the head of the column was fired upon by a pic- 
quet under the command of Sheriff Jarvis, who 
had been stationed by Fitzgibbon among some 
trees at the side of Yonge Street, which was the 
route taken by the rebels. The outpost, which 
consisted of twenty-seven men, at once retired, 
and the rebels, after those in front had returned 
the fire, retired also, and with precipitation. Some 
of the rebels had already been discouraged by 
learning of Brown s defeat by Colonel Wetherall 
at St. Charles, and under the influence of the 
additional discouragement produced by this re 
pulse, many of Mackenzie s men returned to their 
homes. Soon after the rebel repulse a small body 
of armed volunteers arrived in Toronto from the 
eastern part of York County, and they were follow 
ed before long by Allan McNab with 60 "Men of 
Gore " or Hamilton militiamen, who arrived by 
steamer. " Throughout the whole of the fol 
lowing day volunteers arrived from all points. 
Cobourg, Whitby, Port Credit, Hamilton, St. 
Catherines, Niagara, each sent its quota of men, and at sunset more than 1,200 men were 
at the service of the government." (Dent s "Story of the Upper Canadian Rebellion.") On 
the 7th, Fitzgibbon, with a force of 1,100 men marched out to Montgomery s, where Mac 
kenzie s force had dwindled down to some 400 men, and made short work of the rebels. 

The Upper Canada militia subsequently gave a good account of themselves at Chippewa 
(the Navy Island affair), Windsor and the Windmill, where the 83rd Regiment and the militia 
lost two officers and fourteen men killed, and about sixty wounded. Several filibustering 
invasions of Upper Canada from the United States took place, and were not stopped until a 
thorough organization of the militia had taken place and it had been put upon a permanent 
footing. By the time affairs settled down again the upper province had 106 complete 
regiments with the full complement of officers and staff. " There were four battalions of 
incorporated militia, organized and clothed like troops of the line ; 1 2 battalions of Provincial 


militia, on duty for a stated period; 31 corps of artillery, cavalry, coloured companies and 
riflemen ; while most of the militia corps had a troop of cavalry attached to them. With a 
population of 450,000 souls, Upper Canada could assemble 40,000 men in arms without 
seriously distressing the country." (McMullen s History p. 472). 

According to the Almanach de Quebec of 1838, the officers of the "Montreal Rifles" 
were as follows : Major, Henry Griffin; Captains, S. DeBleury; Bt-Major, P. E. Leclerc, 
Jas. Brackanridge ; ist Lieutenants, Chas. T. Greece, Lewis Moffatt, John Blackwood; 
2nd Lieutenants, Win. Meredith, John Ross, Chas. H. Gates. 

The officers of the " First Battalion " are given as follows : Lieut-Col., Norman Bethune; 
Majors, Isaac Valentine and Stanley Bagg; Captains, J. Jones, Geo. Phillips, Chas. Geddes, 
J. P. Sexton, J. Platt, Lewis Haldimand, John Riddell, Joshua Pelton. 

The old volunteer and militia corps which did such good service during 1837-38 were 
disbanded in May 1839, but partially reorganized in 1846 at the time of the difficulty with 
the United States over the Oregon frontier dispute, during which it looked as though war 
with the United States was inevitable. The Montreal Fire Brigade was formed into a 
battalion of militia under the command of Lieut-Col, the Hon. James Ferrier, then Mayor of 
Montreal, Mr. John Fletcher, now Lieut-Col. Fletcher, C. M. G., being appointed Lieutenant 
and Adjutant. This battalion drilled without arms in the Market Hall during the winter 
months for several years, and made good progress as a military organization. The duties of 
the battalion as a fire brigade, in the musters at fires and company parades, served to maintain 
it in its strength as a militia corps long after the excitement of the Oregon incident had 
died away. 

On the breaking out of the Crimean War in 1854, Captain Fletcher, with authority, 
offered the services of a hundred men of the Montreal Fire Battalion to the Imperial 
government as volunteers for the war. For this offer he received the thanks of the Secretary 
of State for War, with a statement that it was not deemed advisable at that time to accept 
the services of any other than those of the regular army. 

Up to this time the permanent defensive force of Canada, apart from the regular Army, 
was the militia proper, which was liable to enrollment for conscription at any moment, as the 
popiilation of Canada is at present, but which, so far as organization was concerned in time 
of peace consisted of a list of officers. The volunteer corps organized in cases of emergency 
up to this time had been more or less of a temporary character. 



HE Montreal Rifle Rangers is the next military organization which comes 
prominently into notice. It was organized in August 1854 by a few 
patriotic gentlemen who considered the time opportune for such a move 
ment. Several of them had had a taste of soldiering in the old rifle 
companies in 1837-38 and so the corps could fairly be considered to be the 
successor of Major Griffin s old Rifle Corps of Rebellion days. At the 
time of this corps organization the Imperial troops, with the exception 
of the since disbanded Royal Canadian Rifles, had been withdrawn from Canada. The 
organization of the Rangers was completed as soon as possible and Mr., now Lieut.-Col., 
Theodore Lyman elected to be captain. The admission to the corps was by ballot. The 
first officers were Theodore Lyman, Captain ; John W. Haldimand, Lieutenant ; J. E. Malhiot, 
Ensign. The company numbered 64 rank and file, and Lieut.-Col. Lyman, who is still hale 
and hearty, remarked the other day that the men included representatives of all the 
nationalities going to make up the population of Montreal. He also remarked that the 
holiday visits of several smart military organizations from the United States had had much 
to do with inspiring the organization of the company. The uniform of the company was of 
dark green cloth, of equal quality for officers and men, and consisted of a braided jacket with 
scarlet facings, and trousers with a scarlet welt down the side. A shako with a device in 
bronze in front, and surmonted by a ball, and a forage cap with a horizontal leather peak 
and a band of silk braid with a silver bugle in front, formed the head gear. The accoutre 
ments were of English patent leather, a waist belt with a plated clasp, and a cross-belt with a 
cartridge box, on which was a silver crown ; and in the case of the officers and sergeants a 
breastplate in silver, bearing in relief the city arms and a silver whistle and chain. The 
cost of a private s outfit was seventeen pounds ten shillings sterling, and that of an officer 
much more. In 1855, as soon as the new Volunteer Militia Bill was reported, Captain 
Lyman secured an interview with Sir Edmund Head, the then governor, to obtain official 
recognition. The Rangers being thus the first to apply for admission under the Act were 
on the 3ist August, 1855, gazetted as the "First Volunteer Militia Rifle Company of 
Montreal," holding seniority over all other active volunteer corps in Canada, and by its 
smart appearance on parade and superior efficiency, imparted a very decided impetus to the 
volunteer movement throughout the country. By the new bill two rifle companies were 
allotted to Montreal and in September, 1855, Captain Fletcher was transferred from the Fire 
Brigade to command Number Two Company. The impetus given to the volunteer militia 
movement resulted in a succession of other Rifle companies being organized. Sir Edmund 
Head discussed the designation of the new force with Captain Lyman, and it was decided to 
call the force neither volunteers nor militia, but " Volunteer-Militia." 

It is a circumstance worthy of remark that the organization of the Rangers as a volunteer 
company, not only antedates the general volunteer militia movement in Canada, but also 
that of the Mother Country. 


Several of the members of the Rifle Rangers entered the Imperial arm 3- as officers at 
the outbreak of the Crimean War. Private John Low joined the i5th Regiment as ensign 
and retired 15 3 ears later as captain. Private Fred. Parker joined the 9/th as an ensign and 
Private G. Bent, C. B., served in the Turkish contingent as captain of engineers. 

Here it is worth while to glance over the rapid development of the Rifle Rangers into a 
complete battalion. 

In 1855, as already stated, a new Militia Act was passed, by which the enrollment of 
Companies of Volunteers was permitted. Under this Act each of the former Provinces of 
Upper and Lower Canada was divided into 9 Military Districts. Colonel de Rottenburg was, 
011 the gth July, 1855, appointed Adjutant-General for Canada. Lieutenant-Colonel Melchior 
Alphonse De Salabeny, Deputy Adj. -Gen. for Lower Canada, and Lieut.-Col. Donald Mac- 
donald, for Upper Canada. 

The first Companies of Volunteers enrolled under this Act were two Rifle Companies, 
one at Quebec, the other at Montreal, the formation of which was authorized by General 
Order, 3ist August, 1855 ; that in Montreal to be styled " The First Volunteer Militia Rifle 
Company of Montreal," with the following officers : Captain, Theodore Lyman, Esquire ; 
Lieut., J. W. Haldimand, Gentleman; Ensign, J. E. Malhiot, Gentleman. The formation 
of another Company was, at the same time, going on from the Montreal Fire Brigade, and 
was authorized on the 2/th September 1855, to be styled "The 2nd Volunteer Militia Com 
pany of Montreal," with officers as follows : Captain, John Fletcher, Esquire, Captain 
Montreal Fire Brigade; Lieutenant, John Lambert, First Lieut.; Ensign, John McNaughton. 
The same Gazette authorized the formation of a Battery of Field Artillery, and a troop of 
Cavalry. The Officers of the Field Battery were: Captain, Major Coffin; First Lieuts., 
Auguste Larnontagne and John Owen ; Second Lieut., Henry Hogan ; Cavalry : Captain, 
David Shaw Ramsay; Lieut., Alfred Nelson; Cornet, Henri des Rivieres. 

On the 2nd May, 1856, the formation of the 3rd and 4th Rifle Companies was authorized. 
3rd Company: Captain, Alexander Bertram Cfrom the Montreal Fire Brigade); Lieut., 
Samuel H. May; Ensign, Peter Cooper. Fourth Compaii} : Captain, Bernard Devlin (well 
known in his lifetime as a prominent Advocate in Montreal) ; Lieut., Francis Frederick 
Mullins; Ensign, John Gillies. 

On the 8th May, 1856, Lt.-Col. John Dyde, of the Montreal Light Infantry (Militia) was 
appointed to command the (four) Volunteer Militia Rifle Companies of Montreal then in 

On the 26th June, 1856, the 5th Rifle Company was authorized. Lieut. W. P. Bartlett 
from the 2nd Battalion (Militia) being appointed Captain ; the other officers, Henry 
Kavanagh, Lieut., and James Donnelly, Ensign, being added the 28th September following. 

On the 3rd July, 1856, the formation of a Company of Volunteer Foot (Garrison) 
Artillery was authorized, the officers being: Captain, Lt. Henry Bulmer ; First Lieut., 
Sergeant A. Ramsay ; Second Lieut., Corporal A. Wand (all being taken from the Volunteer 
Field Battery). 

On the i yth July, 1856, the 6th Rifle Company was formed. Thomas Alfred Evans as 
Captain ; Charles F. Hill as Lieutenant ; Joseph Lee as Ensign. The latter, however, 
resigned, and was replaced on the ;th Aug., 1856, by Joshua Bronsdon. 

On the 23rd August, 1856, an Adjutant of the Rifle Companies was appointed in the 
person of Ensign J. E. Malhiot of Number One Company, who was replaced as Ensign in 
No. i by Sergeant James W. Hanson of the same Company. 

On the 1 6th October, 1856, the /th or Montreal Highland Rifle Company was authorized. 
John Macpherson, a member of Number One, being appointed Captain, and on the 3Oth 
October, 1856, George McGibbon, Lieutenant, and Peter Moir, Ensign. The 8th Rifle 



1 Capiain Theodore Lyman 

2 James W. Hanson 

3 Lieutenant Thomas F. Blackwood i: 

4 Ensign R. G Starke 

5 Private John Macpherson 
T James W. Britt 

7 Robert L. Gault * 

8 Private Robert Forsythe 

9 Malcolm Morison 
10 " Walter Wily * 

I I " Thos. D Hood 

12 " John Low 

13 Corporal E. E. Peaudry * 

14 Private George Fraser : 

15 Private John Pope 

16 Sergeant Francis Scholes 

17 Private G. E. Starnes 

18 " Michel Bourret 

19 J. H, Wood 

20 " L. A. Dufresne 

21 " Charles Nelson 

22 Private Geo. Washington Stephens 

23 Corporal Richard Thomas * 

24 Private James Maclean * 

25 W. L. Haldimand 

26 " William Farrell 

* binue de-ceast-il 

Company followed on the 3oth October, 1856. Captain, C. E. Belle ; Lieut., Olivier Deguise; 
Ensign, Luc O. Dnfresne. On the i^ih November, 1856, Lieut. Haldimand. No. i Co., 
was made Paymaster of all the Rifle Companies with the rank of Captain, and Ensign Cooper, 
from No. 3, Quartermaster, with the rank of Lieutenant; Assistant Surgeon, W. E. Scott, 
M. D., from the Montreal Light Infantry (Militia) Surgeon; A. H. Kollmyer, M. D., Assist 
ant Surgeon. On the same date Ensign J. W. Hanson was appointed Lieut, in No. i 
"vice" Mr. Haldimand, and Color Sgt. Archibald Stewart, Ensign "vice" Hanson. On the 
2Oth November, 1856, the two senior Captains of the Volunteer Rifle Companies, Lyman and 
Fletcher, were given the rank of Major, the Order running thus : 

"These Officers having formed the first Rifle Companies in Montreal and commenced 
" the organization of a Force in that City whose discipline and appearance are not excelled 
" by any Corps in the Province." 

On the nth December, 1856, Lieut.-Col. Dyde, commending the Volunteer Rifle Com 
panies of Montreal, was appointed Commandant of the whole of the active Militia Force in 
that garrison, being succeeded in command of the Rifle Companies by Major Thomas Wiley, 
A. Q. M. G., and Major Fletcher, Captain of Number Two, was appointed to act as Musketry 
Instructor to all the Volunteer Companies in Montreal. January 3rd, 1857, Lieut. Malhiot 
was given the rank of Captain. March i4th, 1857, Sergeant William Middleton was 
appointed Ensign in No. 3 Company "vice" Cooper appointed Quartermaster i3th 
November, 1856. 

The following General Order of the i7th March, 1857, is of interest: 

" HEAD QUARTERS, MONTREAL, i7th March, 1857. 

" The Lt.-Gen. Commanding having had an opportunity of seeing the Volunteer Field 
" Battery and Foot Company of Artillery and the Volunteer Militia Rifle Companies 
" manoeuvres yesterday on the ice in company with H. M. s 39th Regiment of Foot, desires 
" to express his satisfaction at the soldierlike steadiness and appearance of the Provincial 
" Forces. The manner in which the Field Battery took up its position on the ice and opened 
" fire was most creditable. The alacrity with which the Officers and men of these Militia 
" Forces turned out at the request of their Commandant, Lt.-Col. Dyde, shows an esprit 
" highly commendable and full of promise. 

" (Signed), W. J. D URBAX, Colonel, 

" Deputy Quartermaster General. 

" By Command of His Excellency the Governor General and Commander in Chief. 


" Adjutant General Militia." 

April 4, 1857 : Formation of the gth Rifle Company is authorized : Captain, Captain and 
Adjutant L. A. H. Latour, from the gth Battalion (Militia) ; Lieutenant, Edouard Beaudry, 
from No. 8 Rifle Company ; Ensign, Sergeant F. X. Lanthier, from gih Battalion. 

April 23, 1857 : Lieutenant, S. H. May, No. 3 Company, is appointed Captain vice 
Bertram who reverts to the Montreal Fire Brigade ; John McKeon is appointed Ensign in 
No. 5 Company vice Donnelly, resigned. 

May 21, 1857 : Lieut. Lambert and Ensign McNaughton of No. 2 Company being Seniors 
of their rank were given the rank of Captain and Lieutenant respectively. Color Sergeant 
John Garven was appointed supernumerary Ensign in the same Company. 


June 1 6, 1857: No. 3 Company, Ensign Middleton was appointed Lieut, vice May, 
promoted ; Sergeant George Wilson Ensign, vice Middleton. 

July 3, 1857: Captain .T. A. Evans of No. 6 Company, appointed Captain of No. i, vice 
Major Theo. Lyman, place on the unattached list. Lieut. C. E. Hill appointed Captain of 
No. 6 vice Evans, transferred to No. i ; Ensign J. Bronsdon appointed Lieut, vice Hill ; 
William O. Smith appointed Ensign vice Bronsdon. 

September 24, 1857: Major Fletcher, of No. 2 Company, appointed musketry Instructor 
for Lower Canada. 

November 12, 1857: No. 8 Company, Ensign Luc O. Dufresne appointed Lieut, vice 
Deguise, placed on the unattached list. Color Sergeant Dominique Dupont appointed 
Ensign vice Dufresne. 

February 4, 1858: No. 5 Company, James Donnelly appointed Ensign vice McKeon, 



I8 59 . 



February 18, 1858: No. 4 Company, Lieut. Mullins and Ensign Gillies given rank as 
Captain and Lieutenant respectively. 

November 26, 1857: Captain Devlin, No. 4 Company, given the rank of Major. 

On March 6th, 1858, a proclamation was issued opening recruit Depots for the icoth 
or Prince of Wales Royal Canadian Regiment. 

April 15, 1858: No. i Company, Color Sergeant Thomas F. Blackwood appointed 
supernumerary Ensign. 

No. 5 Company, Lieut. Kavanagh appointed Captain vice Bartley, permitted to retire 
with the rank of " Major ; Ensign Donnelly appointed Lieut, vice Kavanagh ; Daniel 
Roony appointed Ensign vice Donnolly. 


June 4, 1858: Major Fletcher having received a commission in the looth Regiment 
was succeeded as Musketry Instructor by Major Lovelace, of the Montreal Cavalry. 

June 8, 1858 : Captain Thomas Evans, No. i Company, was granted the rank of Major; 
No. 2 Company, Lieut, and Captain John Lambert appointed Captain vice Fletcher ; Ensign 
and Lieut. Duncan McNaughton appointed Lieut, vice Lambert. 

July 28, 1858: Lieut. George McGibbon, of No. 7 (Highland Company), and Lieut. 
J. W. Hanson, No. i Company, were given the rank of Captain. 

October 7, 1858 : No. 3 Company, Color Sergeant Henry Ashby appointed supernumer 
ary Ensign. 

November 18, 1858: No. 2 Company, supernumerary Ensign John Garven appointed 
Ensign vice McNaughton. 

February 18, 1859 : No. 2 Company, Ensign John Garven appointed Lieut, vice 
McNaughton, left the limits. Corporal Wm. Smyth appointed Ensign vice Garven. 

July u, 1859: No. 7 (Highland Company), Color Sergeant George Brown appointed 
supernumerary Ensign. 

December, 1858: No. 9, to be Lieut., Ensign F. X. Lanthier vice Beaudry, resigned; 
Sergeant Eraste d Odet d Orsonnens vice Lanthier, promoted. No. 7 (Highland Company), 
to be Lieut., Ensign Peter Moir vice Lieut, and Captain G. McGibbon, permitted to retire 
retaining his rank. To be Ensign, supernumerary Ensign Duncan Barclay Macpherson 
vice Moir promoted. 

In 1859 a new Militia Act was passed in which provision was made for the organization 
of Battalions, and on the i7th November, 1859, the following General Order was issued : 

" HEAD QUARTERS, QUEBEC, 17 November, 1859. 


" In pursuance of Section 15 of the Militia Act, 22 Viet. Chap, 18, His Excellency 
" the Right Honorable the Governor General and Commandant-in-Chef is pleased to con- 
" stitute into a Battalion the existing nine Volunteer Rifle Companies of Montreal to be 
" styled the First Battalion Volunteer Militia Rifles of Canada. These Companies will 
" retain their present Number or Designation." 

The first Battalion thus authorized included the following officers: Lieut.-Col. : Thomas 
Willy; Majors: Bernard Devlin and Thomas Evans; Adjutant: Captain Edwyn Evans, 
(Captain Malhiot being placed on the unattached list) ; Paymaster : Captain C. E. Labelle, 
No. 8 Company, (Captain Haldimand having left the District); Quartermaster: Lieut. Peter 
Cooper; Surgeon : William E. Scott, M.D. ; Assistant Surgeon : Alexander H. Kollmyer, M.D. 

No. i Company: Capt., James W. Hanson; Lieut., Archibald Steward; Ensign, Thomas 
F. Blackwood; Supernumerary Ensign, Richard G. Starke. 

No. 2 Company: Captain, John Lambert (retired with rank, 17 Nov., 1859); 
Lieut., John Garven ; Ensign, William Smyth. 

No. 3 Company: Captain, S. H. May; Lieut., William Middleton ; Ensign, George 

No. 4 Company: Captain, F. F. Mullins ; Lieut., John Gillies. 

No. 5 Company : Captain Henry Kavanagh ; Lieut., James Donnelly ; Ensign, Daniel 

No. 6 Company : Captain, C. F. Hill ; Lieut., J. Bronsdon ; Ensign, William O. Smith. 

No. 7 Company: Captain John Macpherson; Lieut., Peter Moir; Ensign, Duncan 
Macpherson ; Supernumerary Ensign, George Brown. 


No. 8 Company: Captain, C. E. Belle; Lieut., Luc O. Dufresne ; Ensign, Dominique 

No. 9 Company: Captain, L. A. H. Latour ; Lieut., Edouard Beaudry; Ensign, F. X. 
Lanthier ; Supernumerary Ensign, Gustave d Odet d Orsennens. 

The first turn-out the Rifles had in daylight took place on the occasion of the first brigade 
inspection of the Montreal force, the satisfaction of the inspecting officer being expressed in 
the following manner : 


" Montreal, 4th September, 1856. 

" The Colonel commanding the district derived much pleasure from the inspection of the 
" Active Volunteer Force of the city, on the Champ de Mars, yesterday afternoon. 

" Colonel Moffat has no hesitation in recording his opinion that the degree of efficiency 




" attained by the force is deserving of high enconium, especially when the recent period of 
" its organization is considered. 

" The Colonel commanding remarks the readiness and punctuality with which the 
" members of these Corps have turned out for military duty on several occasions, for which 
" his thanks are due. 

" The programme of evolutions practised at the inspection appears to the Colonel 
" commanding to have been designed with ability and judgment, and the details carried out 
" very successfully. 

" The large concourse of spectators by which the review was witnessed, marks the 
" interest which the public takes in the organization of the force. 

" The Colonel commanding the district desires, therefore, to congratulate Lieutenant- 


" Colonels Dyde and David and Major Coffin upon the creditable condition of the Active 
Militia Force of Montreal, and requests that this order may be read at the next parade or 
" muster of the respective troops and companies." 

The Colonel Moffat, who issued the above order was the Hon. George Moffat, whose 
name was so well known in civil life in Montreal in those days. It was doubtless on the 
strength of his nattering report that another splendid and more practical official compliment 
was paid to the two senior captains of the battalion. The Montreal "Transcript" of the 
twentieth of November, 1856, published the following: 

" Under a new general order issued by the Commander-in-Chief, and published in the 
Official Gazette of Saturday, we are pleased to see that Captain Charles J. Coursol, 2nd 
Troop Volunteer Cavalry, Montreal, Captain of i5th September, 1848, has been promoted to 
the rank of Major. His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief has been further pleased to 
direct that the two senior captains of the Volunteer Rifle Companies in this City, viz : 
Captains Theodore L/yman and J. Fletcher, shall likewise be promoted to the rank of Major. 
These officers having formed the first Rifle Companies in Montreal, and commenced the 
organization of a force in that city whose discipline and appearance are not excelled by any 
corps in the Province ." 

The organization and efficiency of the Montreal Rifle Companies had more than an 
indirect influence upon the organization of other corps throughout the Province. As the 
parent corps of the new service they were regarded as models in more ways than one. Their 
officers were so devoted to their military duties and so proficient in the discharge of them, 
that those in authority availed themselves of their services in organizing, drilling, and even 
inspecting other volunteer corps. In 1858, Major Fletcher conducted the first annual drill 
of ten days of the St. Martin s Volunteer Rifle Company, and was thanked for his services- 
by Captain Lahaise, commanding the Company, Lieut.-Colonel Belanger and Dr. Smallwood. 
The same month Major Fletcher was sent by headquarters to Sherbrooke to inspect the rifle 
corps just organized at that place. 

Iviexit.-Colonel (then Major) Fletcher drilled the companies at St. Vincent de Paul, Three 
Rivers, Sorel, Granby and Inverness for the annual drills of 1856, 57 and 58. When first 
appointed to the permanent staff as Brigade Major for the 6th Military district, his authority 
extended over the counties of St. Johns, Napierville, Huntingdon, Beauharnois, Chateauguay, 
Laprairie, Vercheres, Chambly and Iberville. At the time of his appointment there were 
only two companies (rifles) in the district, and he was ordered to organize infantry companies 
wherever volunteers could be found in the district. He was materially aided by the clergy, 
Roman Catholic and Protestant, and in six months succeeded in forming 31 new companies, 
twelve of which were composed of French Canadians. All served creditably during the 
Fenian Raids. 

In the spring of 1858, when the looth Royal Canadian Regiment was organized in 
Canada as a contribution by this country to the Empire, Major Lyman and Lieut. James W. 
Hanson, of the old Rifle Rangers, were offered a company and a lieutenancy respectively in 
recognition of their services to the volunteer movement. Major Fletcher accepted a com 
mission as lieutenant in the new regiment, and several men of the Rifles went with him. 




UESDAY, the i/th of August, 1858, was a red letter day in the 
history of Montreal s oldest Rifle corps, officially known at that time, 
by the way, as the Montreal Volunteer Militia Rifles, that being 
the date of the start of the Battalion for Portland, Maine, the 
inauguration of a series of mutually beneficial international visits 
between the militia of Canada and the United States which have 
done much in contributing towards the development of that good 
feeling and mutual respect which should exist between two kindred, 
neighbouring peoples, each working out its destiny in its own 
particular way. The companies participating were No. i, Captain Hanson ; No. 
2, Captain Lambert ; No. 3, Ensign Wilson ; No. 6, Captain Hill ; Nos. 8 and 9, 
Captain Belle ; and the Highland Company, Captain Macpherson. The batta 
lion was accompanied by its band and buglers, under Mr. Prince, and took with 
it to Portland the Queen s Colour of the old Montreal Light Infantry, loaned 
for the occasion by Lieut.-Colonel Benjamin Holmes, the former commanding 
officer of the late regiment of Montreal Light Infantry. The marching state 
of the battalion was : 2 field officers, 7 captains, 6 subalterns, 6 staff officers, 
2 staff sergeants, 14 sergeants, 22 musicians, 9 buglers, 186 rank and file. 
The complete list of officers was as follows : Lieut.-Colonel Wiley, Command 
ing; Major, Thos. Evans; Captains, Macpherson, Belle, Latour, Hill, Lambert, 
Mullins, and Hanson; Lieutenants, McNaughton and Bronsdou ; Ensigns, 
Wilson, Dupont, MacPherson, and Blackwood ; Staff, Captain and Adjutant Malhiot, 
Surgeon Scott, Assistant Surgeon Kollmyer, Quartermaster Cooper, Dr. A. Nelson, Staff 
Surgeon to the Brigade, and Major Lyman of the Rifles, unattached. There was 110 Victoria 
Bridge, much less a Lachine Bridge, then, and the battalion had to cross to Longueuil to 
entrain for their peaceful invasion of the neighbouring republic. Arriving at Portland the 
following morning, the battalion was made the recipient of most generous hospitality on the 
part of the citizens and military of the Maine seaport, which was just celebrating the 
completion of the first Transatlantic Cable. Never since the declaration of peace between the 
United States and Great Britain, had an armed force or military organization of the Crown 
of England trodden the soil of the United States. 

The friendly spirit in which the visitors were received can be easily realized from a few 
extracts from the numerous speeches delivered by various civil and military officials in Port 
land. After arriving in Portland, the Rifles, escorted by the local militia companies 
proceeded to the quarters of Major-General Wendell P. Smith, commanding the Portland 
district, and paid him the honours due to his rank. In acknowledgment, the General made 
a lengthy speech, in the course of which he said : " We receive and shall entertain you as 
friends and brave men of the same blood and race as ourselves. You and we acknowledge 
and respect one mother country. Your nation and ours now feel the throbbing of the electric 

5 1 

chain which connects the shores of each, and vibrates throughout both continents. Your 
city and ours are already connected by bars of iron, and may this your visit so cement the 
bonds of friendship between you, your citizens and ours, that they shall never be severed 
while the British and American waters of the great lakes mingle together and seek the ocean 
by one common channel." General Smith especially expressed his thanks for the compli 
ment paid him, the state, the city and the whole country by the band of the Rifles playing 
the American national air " Hail Columbia." General Smith then assured Colonel Wiley 
that there was another national air which would be equally as gratifying to himself and the 
citizens to hear the Portland band play. He concluded : " So I direct that all the drums 
beat, that the Portland band play, and that the music be, God Save the Queen." 

Proceeding to the City Government House, the battalion was again addressed by the 
Mayor of Portland, the Hon. J. Jewett, who remarked : " Descending from a common 
ancestry, possessing a common language, and professing a common religion, they who are 
alike in blood, in tongue, and in faith, are truly brethren, and this union in sentiment, I 
trust, will be more lasting, even than the iron bands that now unite us ; for the ties of friend 
ship and unity, being born of the Divine, are like the Divine, immortal. We bid you 
welcome, citizen soldiers, as representatives of that power in our respective governments, 
which it has ever been the just pride of those speaking the English language to maintain, 
for it is the bayonet of the citizen soldier, only, that thinks, and with them both the musket 
and the man speak for liberty and humanity. We welcome you with a peculiar pleasure at 
this time of jubilant exultation, when the old world and the new, estranged since God said : 
Let the waters under the Heaven be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land 
appear are once more reunited by the Atlantic cable. And as God upon the sky has, as 
the sacred historian tells, set his bow of promise as a token of good will to man, so now, the 
men of Old England and the men of New England, reversing the arc, have laid this human 
bow of promise that tells us there shall evermore be the seed time and the harvest of peace 
on earth and good will towards men." 

A dinner to the visitors and a review participated in by the Montreal Rifles and the 
Portland companies were the principal features of this interesting international visit. At 
the dinner, the first toast as given by the toast master was : " The British Queen. Adored 
by her subjects, honoured and respected throughout the world though free from the 
sovereign s sceptered sway, Americans acknowledge allegiance to the pure and virtuous 
woman." Another toast was given as follows : " The Army and Navy of Great Britain. 
Their fame and glory are secure while the names of Wellington and Nelson shine in the page 
of history." 

All through the trip the behavior of the battalion was most exemplar}-, eliciting the 
warmest praise on all hands. 

The Portland "Transcript" commenting on the visit gives us an independent pen- 
picture of the Rifles on parade, remarking : " Of course much curiosity was felt as to the 
military efficiency of our Canadian friends. They did not make so showy an appearance as 
our troops, but it struck us that their uniform was better adapted to active service than the 
more cumbrous adornments of our soldiers. The uniform of the staff officers (brigade staff) 
was rich and showy. They wore the traditionel scarlet coat of the British army, splendidly 
embroidered with gold. The dress of the Rifles was a neat black frock coat and pantaloons, 
red trimmings and facings, with the regulation cap and pompon. That of the Highland 
company was a green coated faced with red and gold, plaid pants, tartan scarfs, Highland 
bonnet with ostrich plumes and red feather. The piper, in full Highland costume, with his 
kilt and his bare knees, attracted some attention. The men were short of stature, in this 
respect not comparing well with our soldiers, but they looked compact and hardy, capable of 


enduring much fatigue. It was interesting to see the various nationalities expressed in the 
countenances and manners of the men. The Highlanders were thoroughly Scotch in form 
and features, spare and sharp, and in their native costume looked like true followers of the 
Bruce. The company of French Canadians had the dark complexion and short stature of 
Canada s French population. It was amusing to see the characteristic manner in which the 
officers of this company fraternized with their men. Capt. Belle, previous to the review on 
Munjoy, made his company a speech in French, in which he indulged in numerous jokes to 
the great amusement of his men, who laughed heartily. We noticed that the Captain, after 
giving the word of command in English, sometimes repeated it in French. The men of the 
other companies were of English and Irish descent, thus making with their compatriots of 
France and Scotland, and their Yankee hosts, an extraordinary mingling of nationalities. If 
the Canadian troops appeared somewhat inferior to our men on the march, they showed their 










superior drill on the parade ground. The} went through the rifle evolutions with great 
celerity of movement, showing the results of much practice, and the advantage of having the 
example of regular troops always before them." 

Another Portland paper in its report of the arrival of the Rifles remarked : " Among 
the soldiers we noticed a number who were in the Crimean war, and who wore the medals 
prepared by the British government for those soldiers." 

Interesting, as giving an idea of the personnel of the sister corps then existent in 
Montreal is the following list of guests who accompanied the Rifles to Portland. Lieut. - 


Colonel Dyde, Commandant of the Montreal Militia ; Captain McCalman, Montreal Light 
Infantry, Acting Brigade Major; Lieut.-Colonel Delisle, nth Battalion, Montreal Militia; 
Major Abbott, 4th Battalion Montreal Militia; Major Dyde, Montreal Light Infantry; Captain 
Ogilvie, ist Troop Montreal Cavalry; Captain Desrivieres, 2nd Troop Montreal Cavalry; 
Captain Meyers, Royal Montreal Artillery ; Captain Scott, Montreal Light Infantry ; Captain 
Lord, Adjutant; Lieut. Ogilvie, ist Troop Montreal Cavalry ; Lieutenants Whitehead, 
Cowan and Simpson, Montreal Light Infantry; Ensign Macaulay, 6th Battalion, Montreal 
Militia ; Lieut. Anderson, Quebec Cavalry ; Lieut. Panet, Quebec Artillery. 

The confederation of the provinces in 1867 brought the militia of Upper and Lower 
Canada (henceforth to be known as Ontario and Quebec) into much closer relationship with 
the splendid militia organizations of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. The present force 
may be described as an amalgamation of the forces which existed in the several provinces at 
the time the Dominion was born. Both of the large maritime provinces maintained efficient 
forces of militia. The Nova Scotia militia consisted of all males between sixteen and sixty, 
with a few exceptions, divided into two classes, the first consisting of those between sixteen 
and fifty-five. The Lieutenant Governor, as Commander-in-Chief, had the privilege of calling 
out the militia for twenty-eight days a year for a drill. Volunteer corps were authorized 
within each of the no battalions in the province. In 1865 there were 898 volunteers and 
59,379 militia enrolled, and the total expenditure of the year on militia account was $95,000. 
When Nova Scotia entered the Dominion in 1867 there were in the provincial militia eight 
companies of volunteers one artillery, one engineers, the rest rifles, making altogether 43 
officers, 47 sergeants, and 549 rank and file. During the same year 41,997 of the militia 
were present at inspection parades. 

In New Brunswick the militia was divided into four classes : Class A, volunteers or 
active militia, 1,791 officers and men; Class B, unmarried men and widowers without 
children, between the ages of 18 and 45, numbering 18,480; Class C, married men and 
widowers with children, between the ages of 18 and 45, numbering 16,932 ; Class D, 
Sedentary militia comprising all the male population, with a few specified exceptions, num 
bering 7,184. Class B and Class C were enrolled in 22 regiments, divided into 42 battalions, 
no less than 33 of which assembled in 1865. The cost of the New Brunswick militia that 
year was $30,000. In 1867 there were in the province, of volunteers, seven corps of cavalry 
(267 officers and men), one of engineers (56 men), twenty-two of infantry (1,317 officers and 

The first Nova Scotia Assembly met at Halifax in 1758, and the first New Brunswick 
Assembly at Fredericton in i786, two years after that province had been separated from Nova 
Scotia. The organization of provincial militia forces was among the first business discussed 
by both of these legislative bodies, but with little result. In anticipation of a French attack 
on British North America in 1793, Governor Carleton (a brother of Lord Dorchester), was 
instructed to raise a corps of 600 men for the defense of New Brunswick, the defficiency in 
the supply of arms to be made up from Halifax. The New Brunswick militia up to that 
time was unarmed and undisciplined. In its collective capacity the Assembly did not admit 
that it was its duty to provide for defence, but the individual members expressed their 
willingness to co-operate for that object. (Canadian Archivist s Report for 1895). 

As indicating the existence of a sense of a community of interest between the different 
provinces that many years ago, it is interesting to note that in 1776 little Prince Edward 
Island contributed a quota of volunteers towards the defence of Quebec ; an American expedi 
tion attacking Charlottetown and burning a number of houses in retaliation. 




HE year 1860 will always be considered a memorable one in the history of 
) the Prince of Wales Regiment as that in which it received the title of 
which it has since become so proud. Many Canadians retain pleasant 
recollections of the same year, for it was then that Canada had the honour 
of entertaining the Heir Apparent. 

Early in May, 1860, Lieut.-Colonel Thomas Wiley, commanding the 
Montreal Rifles, was sent for by the Hon. John Rose, then Chief Commissioner 
of Public Works and informed by him that he had been selected by the government 
to assist, xinder his orders, in making preparations for the visit of the Prince of Wales, 
who was to arrive the following August. As Lieut.-Colonel Wiley himself expressed it, 
the duties assigned to him were somewhat analagous to those of a Quartermaster-General 
of an army. He had to provide temporary places of residence for the Prince and his 
suite at the different places he was to visit, to make arrangements for his transportation and 
reception, and generally to make himself useful. At every place His Royal Highness 
stopped, hotels or mansions were rented, renovated and refxirnished. Every bit of furniture 
and tableware for the Prince s use was specially made, and bore His Royal Highness s crest 
and the historic plumes. Lieut.-Colonel Wiley had to provide all of this as well as organize 
a corps of cooks, stable attendants, a suitable string of horses, etc. To give an idea of the 
minute details which were attended to before the Prince arrived, it might be mentioned that 
two complete dinner sets, with glass and plate, had been procured in England and were 
expressly manufactured for the occasion. On all of these articles the Prince s crest figured 
conspicuously, surrounded by beautiful wreaths of green maple leaves. One set with a relay 
of waiters and servants had always to be sent on in advance. Thus while the Prince was at 
Quebec, the relay was awaiting his arrival at Montreal. Lieut.-Colonel Wiley contributed 
in no small degree towards the success of the Prince s Canadian trip, remaining with the 
Royal part}- until the}- finally bade adieu to Canada. 

During the Prince s stay in Montreal the brigade of volunteers was inspected on Logan s 
Farm by His Royal Highness. Colonel Wiley, in a brief reference to this event in his 
reminiscences, gives an account of the way in which the Prince of W 7 ales Regiment came to 
get its name. The gallant Colonel writes : "The day being fine the review was witnessed 
by thousands. For the occasion, I had assumed the command of my own regiment, now the 
First or Prince of Wales Regiment, a title conferred on it by the Prince while he was 
in London, Canada West, on my application. After the review, the commanding officers 
were called to the front and complimented in the usual way." 

The regiment made special preparations for the Prince s visit, and it is on record that it 
made a very favourable impression on His Royal Highness. At a meeting of the officers of 
the regiment held on the i3th of July 1860, it was resolved : "That a battalion drill do take 
place on Thursday evening of each week during the time intervening between this date and 
the arrival of His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, and that it be substituted for the 


Usual weekly company drills, and that the battalion be formed on parade at 7 o clock P.M." 
At another meeting of officers held on the i4th of August, it was agreed to have an afternoon 
parade previous to the arrival of His Royal Highness, so as to perfect the battalion iu the 
movements which it was to be put through on the occasion of the review. The regiment 
had a full share of guard of honour duty to perform at this time. There was such com 
petition among the officers for these duties that the officers were posted by lot to the different 
guards of honour before the Prince s arrival as follows : 

ist Guard, Captain Garven, Lieut. Rooney, Bnsign Wilson; and Guard, Captain 
Dufresne, Lieut. Gillies, Ensign Payette; 3rd Guard, Captain McPherson, Lieut. Middleton, 
Ensign Eraser ; 4th Guard, Captain Hanson, Lieut. Holmes, Ensign d Orsonnens ; 5th 
Guard, Captain Kavanagh, Lieut. Blackwood, Ensign Pierson ; 6th Guard, Captain Mullins, 
Lieut. Moir, Ensign Brown ; jth Guard, Captain Hill, Lieut. Lanthier, Ensign Starke ; 
8th Guard, Captain May, Lieut. Dupont, Ensign Gallagher; gth Guard, Captain Latour, 
Lieut. Bronsdon. 

A general order was issued, dated Sept. jth, 1860, reading as follows : " His Excellency, 
the Commander-in-Chief, desires to convey his thanks to the volunteer force of Montreal for 
the manner in which they performed the duties connected with the visit of His Royal 
Highness the Prince of Wales to that city, and to express his satisfaction at the soldier-like 
appearance presented by the several corps under the command of Colonel Dyde. 

" His Excellency further directs that the ist Battalion of Rifles already organized in 
Montreal shall, by the permission of His Royal Highness, be henceforth termed The First 
(or Prince of Wales) Regiment of Volunteer Rifles of the Canadian Militia." 

Lieut.-Colonel Wiley gives the following characteristic account of his last interview with 
the Prince : " Early in the morning of the day that the Prince left Hamilton I received an 
intimation from General Bruce that the Prince desired to see me at his residence. On 
proceeding there I was immediately ushered into his presence. His reception of me was kind 
and gracious. Presenting me with a jewel case which he held in his hand, he desired my 
acceptance of it as a memento of his visit to Canada, and to mark his appreciation of my 
services in connection therewith, graciously adding, as he shook hands with me, in bidding 
me adieu, that he knew that I had had a very troublesome time of it." The jewel case, by 
the way, contained five massive gold vest buttons with three shirt studs bearing the plumes 
in gold, on a ground of blue enamel. 

As to this country s entertainment of the Prince, Lieut.-Colonel Wiley relates that when 
all was settled it was found that Canada had spent half a million dollars for the Prince s 
visit. Sales were held to dispose of the furniture which had been purchased, and the unused 
provisions. The bedroom furniture which had been used by the Prince was eagerly bid 
for. So were any articles that bore his crest, notably the dinner sets and the glass ware. 
Connoisseurs of wine sought to obtain some of the wine to which the imprimature of the 
Prince gave quite a magical reputation. Lieut.-Colonel Wiley had pxirchased a quantity of 
Catawba wine for the Royal party, but as it did not suit the English palate only one case of 
it had been opened. The remaining eleven cases sold at quadruple their original cost. The 
people of Canada were as lavish as the government. One of the features of the famous 
historical ball in Montreal given in the Prince s honour was a fountain in the refreshment 
room flowing with alternate streams of champagne and claret. 

Lieut.-Colonel Wiley commanded the Civil Service Rifle Regiment, Ottawa, from the 
time of its organization in 1866, until its disbandment by General Order on December 
igth, 1868. 

On the occasion of Lieut.-Colonel W r iley severing his connection with the Prince 
of Wales Regiment to go to Ottawa, November 27th, 1862, he was presented by the 


Regiment and other friends with a handsome silver cup and $550 in cash, in recognition 
of the important services he had rendered in the promotion of the volunteer movement 
in Montreal. 

At Ottawa Lieut. -Colonel Wiley had an important position in the Militia Department, 
serving under the first Minister of Militia and Defence after Confederation, the late Sir 
George E. Cartier. It so happened that in 1848, while the gallant Colonel was chief of the 
Montreal police he had had occasion to arrest Sir George, then plain Mr. Cartier, for 
attempting to fight a duel with the late Mr. Joseph Doutre, Q. C. 

Colonel, then Captain, Wiley did not know of the meeting until after the principals had 
left the city, when he was instructed by Mayor Bourret to stop the fight by arresting the 
principals. By luck, the route taken by the duellists was found out, and Wiley, accompanied 
by three of his men, started in pursuit. On the Petite Cote Road, about a mile beyond 
the toll gate, in a sharp turn of the road, Dr. Wolfred Nelson was encountered, awaiting the 
summons for professional assistance. A few 
hundred yards further on, on the right hand 
side of the road, the duellists and their friends, 
half a dozen in all, were found, actively prepar 
ing for the fray. The principals were arrested, 
and next morning bound over to keep the peace 
in the province. However, where there is a will 
there is a way. From the Court House they 
started for the frontier, and crossing the border 
at St. Armand, they settled their quarrel on neu 
tral ground by a harmless exchange of shots. 
The cause of the quarrel was political and made 
a great stir at the time. Lieut.-Colonel Wiley 
used to say that during the time he had constant 
intercourse with Sir George as his subordinate he 
used to speculate whether at any time, when they 
met, it recalled to the mind of his chief the Sunday 
afternoon when he was a prisoner. 

The first standing orders of the Rifles, 
passed January i2th, 1860, provided that the 
badge of the ist Battalion should be a bugle, 
having in its centre a maple leaf, the whole 
surrounded by a garter bearing the title of 
the regiment, und underneath a scroll with the 
motto " Nulli Secundus." At a meeting of officers held in the Brigade Orderly Room, 
Victoria Hall on July i3th, 1860, it was resolved that " in addition to the present badge and 
device," a crown surmounting be added. On February yth, 1861, it was decided to adopt the 
Prince of Wales plume as the regimental pouch belt ornament, and the plume replaced the 
crown in the regimental badge. 

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales has on man}- occasions manifested a keen 
personal interest in the welfare of his Canadian Regiment, and the corps, on its part, has 
always shown a lively appreciation of the honourable distinction it possesses of bearing the 
name of the Heir Apparent. On each anniversary of the Prince s birth the cable has carried 
a congratulatory message to His Royal Highness from his Montreal Regiment, and the 
greeting is always promptly and feelingly acknowledged. On the occasion of the celebration 
of the silver wedding of their Royal Highnesses, March, 1888, the Regiment gave a ball 



at the Windsor Hotel in honour of the occasion. It was, as one of the local papers said the 
next day, a royal ball and a royal success. Among the guests on this occasion were Major- 
General Sir Fred Middleton, commanding the Canadian Militia, the officers of the district 
staff and of sister corps, the Judges of the higher courts, and the civic dignatories. On 
Saturday, the loth, the actual anniversary of the Royal wedding, a detachment of the Regi 
ment under command of Major Butler commemorated the event by marching to the summit 
of Mount Royal, and, in conjunction with the Montreal Field Battery, firing a Royal salute. 

The Prince of Wales birthday is usually celebrated by the regiment by giving a ball, a 
particularly successful one on the fiftieth anniversary of the Prince s birth, November 9 th, 
1891, being given under the auspices of the sergeants of the Regiment. In 1890, the Prince 
of Wales birthday falling on a Sunday, it was celebrated by a church parade to St. George s 
Church, when an impressive sermon was delivered by His Lordship Bishop Bond, Chaplain 
of the Regiment. His Lordship said that he had then been identified with the regiment for 
thirty years, both in the city and on active service, and he was able to say from close 
observance that they had always maintained a high character and paid strict attention to 
duty. They had always been good soldiers and worthy of the name they bore. 

In 1882 the Regiment was honoured by its senior Major, Major Bond, receiving a 
private reception by the Prince of Wales at Marlborough House on April 8th. The Prince 
recalled many items of his visit to Montreal in 1860 and enquired after many of the people 
he had then met. On April loth there was an Easter Monday Review at Portsmouth and 
Major Bond was placed on the Duke of Cambridge s Staff. On the same staff were the 
Prince of Wales, General Wolseley and General Roberts and a splendid opportunity was 
afforded to see the best of the English Volunteers, a privilege that was much appreciated. 



NOVEMBER, 1861, Messrs. Mason and Sliddell, commissioners of the 
Southern Confederacy, were taken from the British steamer " Trent " on 
the high seas in spite of the protests of her captain, by an armed body 
of marines sent from the United States man-of-war " San Jacinto". 
There was much ill feeling between the two countries before this incident. 
After this wanton outrage on the British flag war appeared inevitable. 
Large numbers of troops, including some of the regiments of the Guards, were 
despatched from England to Canada. With the prospect of this country being made 
the battle-field of the contending parties, Canadian loyalty never wavered, and 
corps of militia were raised in every locality. The present 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th 
battalions were raised in Montreal. Sergeant F. Scholes of the Prince of Wales 
Regiment became a captain in the 3rd Victoria Rifles, and Sergeant G. W. Stephens, since 
a prominent member of the Provincial Legislature, and Private G. E. Starnes of the same 
regiment, became lieutenants in the Montreal Cavalry. Fortunately the United States 
surrendered the commissioners and made amends for the Trent affair, and the threatened war 
was averted. 

A good idea of the excitement which prevailed in Montreal at this time is obtained from 
a Montrealer s private letter to a friend in Scotland published in the Greenock " Herald " of 
March ;th, 1862. In the course of his letter, which was dated February I4th, the writer 
remarked : " When I arrived here in December, I found the Canadians in a great state of 
excitement about the Mason and Sliddell affair. They were volunteering and drilling all 
over the country, but at the same time they did not seem to be in the least afraid, although, 
had war broken out, the brunt of it would have fallen upon Canada. I think that the backing 
out of the Americans was all owing to the prompt measures adopted by the British govern 
ment, and the determined stand taken by the Canadians. It is the opinion of every one here 
who knows anything of the Yankees, that Canada would have been invaded before this if any 
of the people had shown disloyalty to the British government at the present crisis ; but I am 
proud to say that the Canadians of every class rallied round the Old Flag like Britons. 
In Montreal alone we have 10,000 volunteers. I am drilling one of the regiments. We have 
here now two regiments of Guards and two regiments of the Line, so that our town looks like 
a regular camp ; at every step you meet soldiers of some kind or other." 

A census taken in 1861 showed the population of the city and suburbs to be 101,600, so 
that the enrolled militia force must have comprised a very large proportion of the adult 
male population. 

The crowning glory, so to speak, of the military enthusiasm of the loyal citizens of 
Montreal in this historic year of 1862 was an imposing parade of the volunteer force on April 
i8th. The following extracts of the report of this event published in the " Witness " are 
interesting as giving some idea of the popular sentiment of the time, and at the same time 
enumerating the existing military organizations of the city : 


If there be any among us who fancy that the people of this province would tamely 
surrender its independence, the spectacle presented on the Champ de Mars yesterday would 
have cured them of their error, and shown, also, that the military spirit of the race is neither 
dead nor slumbering. We dare to say that scarcely has a larger number of men under arms 
ever assembled at once on the Champ de Mars; and as for the crowd of spectators, it 
distances anything within our experience. The interest which all classes of our citizens 
manifested in the parade yesterday was very great ; the Champ de Mars was crowded in every 
place from whence a view of the proceedings going on could be obtained ; even the trees were 
ascended by venturesome spectators, while the windows of the Court House were thronged 
by persons of both sexes, who were fortunate enough to procure admittance. About a 
quarter to three o clock the different volunteer corps, each headed by a band, began to march 
on to the Champ de Mars, and take up position, forming into columns of companies facing 
the Court House. The troops were arranged in the following order : Extreme west end of 
Champ de Mars, Prince of Wales Volunteer Rifle Regiment, Lieut. -Colonel Wiley ; next, 
on their left, the Chasseurs Canadiens, Lieut.-Colonel Coursol ; the Royals, Major Fletcher 
commanding in the absence of Lieut.-Colonel Routh ; the Light Infantry, Lieut.-Colonel 
Whitney (this regiment carried their colours, the Queen s and regimental) ; next, Hochelaga 
Battalion, Lieut.-Colonel Hibbard ; Victoria Rifles, Lieut.-Colonel Osborne Smith ; Montreal 
Battalion Artillery, Lieut.-Colonel Tylee ; and Captain Ward s Foot Artillery. Major 
Stevenson s Montreal Field Battery was in position on the extreme left. Captain Smith s 
and Captain Lanquedoc s troops of Montreal Cavalry were also on the ground and occupied a 
prominent position on the right of the line. Among the officers of the militia present were 
Colonel De Salaberry, Deputy Adjutant-General for Lower Canada; Lieut.-Colonel 
Ermatinger, Inspecting Field Officer for Lower Canada, Colonel Dyde, Colonel Commandant 
of the Militia Garrison, Lieut.-Colonel George Smith, District Deputy Adjutant-General, 
Major Lyman, District Assistant Quartermaster-General, Major McPherson, Brigade Major, 
and Major Penn, Aide-de-Camp to the Commandant. We may also mention that Major 
Hogan commanded the Field Artillery and Lieut.-Colonel David the Cavalry. Colonel Dyde 
commanded the brigade of militia on the ground. 

" A little before four o clock, Lieut.-General Williams, K. C. B., accompanied by Major- 
General Bell, Major-General Lord Paulet, and a numerous and brilliant staff, consisting of 
the heads of all the Military departments of the city, and the aides-de-camp of the several 
Generals, came upon the ground and took up positions facing the centre of the line. They 
were escorted by the Guides, a body of cavalry raised from the members of the Montreal 
Hunt for the purpose of forming a body-guard for His Excellency the General Commanding. 

" As the General came upon the ground the troops took open order and gave the general 
salute, the several bands playing the National Anthem. The volunteers then formed fours, 
and facing to the right began to march past in quarter distance column. The spectacle now 
was one sufficient to make ever}- one who had a view of them feel proud of the citizen soldiers, 
as with steady face and upright bearing, vicing with one another in generous rivalry and in 
the accuracy of their movements, they marched past in succession, and took up their original 

" The commanding officers were then called to the front, and complimented by General 
Williams on the fine appearance and discipline of their respective corps. General Williams 
and staff then left the ground, the troops ordered arms and stood at ease, and were inspected 
officially by Lieut.-Colonel DeSalaberry, Deputy Adjutant-General for Lower Canada. This 
brought the proceedings to a close. Taken all in all, the parade was one that must be 
highly gratifying to the military authorities, the volunteers themselves, and the citizens, who 
feel a pride in them." 


It is very evident that during the years of comparative quiet preceding the Trent affair 
the Canadian militia well kept up its state of efficiency. On September the 27th, 1860, the 
following high compliment was paid to the active force of Canada by the special correspondent 
of the London " Morning Post" with the Prince of Wales party, who was considered a high 
military authority : 

" I am very happy to bear witness to the efficiency of the volunteer force of Canada, so 
far as it has come under my observation. Some extremely unfair remarks appeared recently 
in an English military journal reflecting both upon the government of this Province and 
upon the defensive force established here within the last three or four years. I have now had 
the opportunity of visiting the cities of Montreal, Quebec, Ottawa, Kingston and Toronto, 
besides which I have stopped at many growing towns and villages. At most of these places 
I have been surprised to find sometimes whole regiments, sometimes single companies, of light 
infantry, rifles and artillery. I made it a par 
ticular object to inspect the various corps as 
closely as possible, and the result has been 
thus far that I have received an impression 
with reference to the active volunteer force of 
Canada in the highest degree favourable to its 
efficiency and organization. Better material, 
I am convinced, could nowhere be found, in 
every respect. Physically, and I firmly believe, 
intellectually, the men who now compose the 
defensive force of Canada are equal to any 
troops that any nation can place in the field; and 
the very greatest credit is due to the govern 
ment, and to the people themselves, who have in 
so comparatively limited a time developed the 
military powers of this Province. His Royal 
Highness and the Duke of Newcastle must 
have been struck with the fine bearing and the 
excellent drill exhibited so frequently by the 
volunteer force in Canada ; and, no matter what 
severe criticisms military journals in London 
may pass upon the small but admirabty equip 
ped army of Canada, depend upon it, should 
the emergency arise, the services of these fine 
fellows who fill the ranks of the volunteer corps 
will be found useful and in all respects worthy of their predecessors of 1812, and of the more 
recent unhappy rebellion." 

During the exciting winter of 1861-62, the Prince of Wales Regiment drilled in the 
Victoria Hall, the companies taking different nights in rotation. The hall was occupied 
every night by one company or another. 

The Montreal "Gazette" of January 3Oth, 1862, announced that with a view of more 
effectively organizing the militia the Governor General had issued a commission on which, 
besides three members of the militia, were placed Colonel Daniel Lysons, C. B., Colonel 
the Hon. Sir Allan N. MacNab, Bart., Colonel the Hon. Sir E. P. Tache, C. B., Colonel 
Campbell, C. B., of St. Hilaire, and Colonel Cameron of Kingston. The "Gazette" 
remarked : " It will be seen that the regular service will be represented on the commission 
by the gallant Colonel Lysons sent out specially on this service by the Imperial government, 



(AUGUST 1855) 


as having large experience with Knglish volunteers ; and that four colonels commanding 
districts, (two for each section of the Province), two of them members of the former commis 
sion, have been selected as his colleagues. We are also glad to be able to announce that 
Ivieut.-Colonel Wiley, who has had so much experience with volunteers in Canada, and is in 
all respects the man best fitted for the work, is to be Secretary of the Commission. We may 
confidently hope that at such time as the present, after our recent experience, both sides of 
the House will work together and use their best exertions to pass an act which will make our 
Canadian Militia really effective. We apprehend that, under the circumstances, the 
formation of any more new corps will be suspended until the new law can be brought 
into force, lest arrangements now made should be found to require considerable alterations 
under its provisions." 

The commission recommended that an active force of 50,000 men should be raised, the 
usual period of training to be 28 days. Upon this recommendation the Cartier-Macdonald 
administration introduced a bill providing for an annual expenditure of $1,000,000. This 
bill was rejected, however, and the ministry resigned. 

What is known as the St. Albans Raid for a time threatened serious complications with 
the United States in 1864. Between twenty-five and thirty Confederates from the Southern 
States, well armed and mounted, passed the Canadian frontier from Montreal, where they 
had assembled, and attacked the town of St. Albans, Vermont, where they raided the banks, 
appropriated horses and stores, and in resisting arrest, killed one man besides wounding 
others. They returned to Canada on October igth. Thirteen of them were arrested by the 
civil authorities, but after trial and lengthy legal arguments, were discharged on December 
i4th, on account of legal difficulties which had arisen in connection with the indictments. 
The United States held the authorities on this side of the line to be responsible, and prompt 
measures were taken in this country to prevent a repetition of the raid. Provisional 
battalions were organized from the militia for special service. One battalion, which included 
a company each from the Prince of Wales regiment, the Victoria Rifles and the Royals, was 
placed under command of Lieut. -Colonel Hill, and stationed from December, 1864, to May, 
1865, at Sandwich, Ontario. A number of Confederates, including some prisoners of war 
who had escaped from the Northern prisons, were reported to be assembling in that district 
and organizing for a raid upon the banks in Detroit. No trouble, however, occured, but the 
authorities on this side of the line set an example of neighbourly conduct which was in 
marked contrast to the open encouragement given in the United States to the hordes of 
filibusterers organized across the frontier in 1837-38 and again in 1866 and 1870 for the 
avowed purpose of making armed descents upon Canada. The company of the Prince of 
Wales Regiment which served with the provisional battalion at Sandwich was commanded by 
Captain Frank Bond, Mr. Charles Brush being his lieutenant and Mr. Arthur David, ensign. 




HE first Fenian Raid, in 1866, was doubtless an outcome of the civil war in 
the United States. The collapse of the Confederacy and the disbandment 
of the great armies which had been maintained on both sides threw a large 
number of more or less well drilled soldiers out of employment. The 
Trent affair, the Alabama matter and several other incidents in connection 
with the late war had left an anti-British feeling among certain elements of 
the population in the United States, and a few Irish agitators found it safe 
enough to organize a force of adventurers to invade Canada under pretence of 
striking at Britain through her loyal and presumably defenceless colony. Plunder 
was doubtless the main object of most of the Fenian leaders. Whether it was the 
spoils of Canadian homes or of the hard earned savings of the sympathizing dupes 
in the United States they were principally after, it is difficult to decide. Although 
the raids proved really ridiculous failures, mere opera-bouffe invasions, they threatened 
to be very serious for Canada. Had the Canadian militia not responded as nobly as they did 
to the call to arms in defence of their fire-sides, and had the Fenians once established 
themselves in Canada their armies would have swollen to formidable hordes, and serious 
fighting must have occurred before the free soil of Canada was rid of their presence. The 
excitement in Canada was naturally great, for rumor magnified the strength of the Fenians, 
and it was realized that in their ranks were many of the war trained and battle hardened 
veterans of the American Rebellion. On the second of June 1866, the battle of Ridgeway 
was fought between a force of Ontario Militia commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Booker and a 
force of 800 or 1000 Fenians who crossed into Canada at Fort Erie. Threats were made to 
cross the frontier into this province in this year, but the bold front shown all along the line 
by the militia prevented the threat from being put into execution. 

In 1870 two Fenian columns did invade this Province, one from Vermont, the other from 
M alone, N. Y., but were quickly met and routed at Eccles Hill and Trout River. The Prince 
of Wales Regiment was on active service on both of these years, but just what the regi 
ment did is best told in the words of those who served in it at this time. 

Surgeon Lieut.-Colonel Francis W. Campbell, of the Royal Regiment of Canadian 
Infantry, Deputy Surgeon-General, not only gives a detailed account of the regiment s 
services during the Fenian Raids, but relates many other facts of interest in the career of 
the corps. 

Surgeon Lieut.-Colonel Campbell joined Number One Company during the summer of 
1855. His name is on the pay roll dated September, 1855. Number 2 and 3 Companies 
were formed a few months later and composed largely of the members of the Montreal 
Volunteer Fire Brigade. Number 4 and 5 Companies of Independent Rifles were formed 
about the same time and were commanded respectively by Captain Devlin and Captain 
Bartley, and were composed entirely of Irish Roman Catholics. Number 6 also formed about 
the same time, was composed entirely of Orangemen. Next came the Highland Company 

which was commanded by Captain John Macpherson. Number 8 and 9, also organized 
about the same time, were composed entirely of French Canadians and were commanded 
respectively by Captains Belle and Latour. The uniform of all the companies, except 
Number 10, was rifle green, the facings generally red. After the formation of the Highland 
Company, the uniform of which was rifle green trimmed with gold lace, tartan trews, scarf 
and Highland feather bonnet, a demand was made by some of the other companies for a 
distinct colour ; for instance the two Irish companies wished green facings and the two 
Orange companies wished yellow facings. On the day of the formation, the First Battalion 
Volunteer Rifles of Canada all except the Highland Company were ordered to wear the rifle 
green with red facings." 

Lieut.-Colonel Campbell continues : " The Regiment was frequently called out in aid of 
the civil power during the years 1858 and 1859. In November, 1861, what is commonly 
known as the Trent difficult} occurred and an Army of about 15,000 men was sent to Canada 
from England, among which were battalions of Scotch Guards, Grenadier Guards and the 
1 6th Regiment of Foot. The i6th Regiment had but recently left Canada. This Regiment 
came out on the Steamship Africa and reached Bic on December 2 ist, 1861, and landed one 
wing of the Regiment, when a fearful snow storm came on and the Captain left and went to 
Halifax. All the British troops were landed at Halifax with the exception of the half wing 
of the 1 6th Battalion and were forwarded by sleighs to Riviere du Loup where they reached 
the first line of railway, which then belonged to the Grand Trunk, and from there were 
distributed to various parts of Canada. The Prince of Wales Regiment was at once made 
ready for service. All the Montreal militia regiments were recruted to their full war strength 
without the slightest trouble. 

" At this time, and for some years previous, the strength of the Prince of Wales Regiment 
was 555 non-commissioned officers and men (10 companies of 55 men), and the Regiment 
drilled regularly once a week during the winter and at longer intervals during the summer. 
The men often turned out to drill on summer mornings between 4 and 5 o clock. I mention 
this fact to show there was great enthusiasm manifested in the volunteer movement at that 
time. I may, as an illustration of this, remark that about 1863 the ladies of Montreal 
presented the Regiment with a full set of fifes and drums in the Crystal Palace, which was 
then on St. Catherine Street, directly opposite Victoria Street. The night of the presentation 
was a wild Canadian night, snow falling and wind blowing, and yet the Regiment turned 
out 550 men. 

" In 1866, early in the year, it became evident that the Fenian organization in the United 
States was likely to cause the Canadians trouble, and during the early part of that year the 
Volunteers were more than once on active service for a short time. It was not, however, 
until June ist, 1866, that anything like a decided movement on their part took place. On 
that day, a large number of them crossed at Buffalo, and occupied what was known as Fort 
Erie, and siibsequently advanced and were met by the Queen s Own and the i3th Battalion, 
under Command of Lient.-Colonel Booker, when what is known as the Battle of Ridgeway 
took place. On the evening of June ist, five companies of the Volunteer militia companies 
of Montreal were dispatched to St. Johns, among them being a company from the Prince of 
Wales Regiment under command of Captain Frank Bond. On the morning of June 2nd, the 
Prince of Wales Regiment was called out for active service, and at 6 P. M. on that day, along 
with the Victoria Rifles, the Regiment left by Grand Trunk Railway, and disembarked at 
Lachine, and from there went to Caughnawaga where it embarked on train for Hemmingford. 
Colonel Osborne Smith was in command of the two Regiments as Brigadier. 

" While in Caughnawaga the Sergeant-Major of the Regiment, named O Mahoney, who 
had been in the Imperial service, gave utterance to some treasonable sentiments. Major 


Hill, who was in command, gave orders that O Mahoney should be placed under arrest, and 
he was, within a very short time, sent back under escort to Montreal, where he was confined 
for a considerable time in the Montreal gaol. On the arrival of the force in Hemmingford 
the officers were accommodated at the houses of farmers and others in the village, while the 
men were housed in barns so as to get a few hours sleep. About 6 a. in. a camp was formed 
not far from the railway track, and a side-track was built so as to run materials right into 
camp. On June 4th Major Stevenson s Field Battery and about 20 of the Montreal Cavalry 
joined the force at Hemmingford. On the fifth the Victoria Rifles were moved forward to 
Huntingdon, and on the sixth the Prince of Wales Regiment left Hemmingford, their 
destination at that time being unknown. They marched to Havelock, a distance of about 
ten miles. Lieut.-Colonel Devlin had, previous to its leaving Hemmingford, arrived and 
assumed command of his Regiment. It left Hemmingford at dawn of day on the sixth. The 
men were in heavy marching order and the roads ankle deep in mud. On the way the men 
were received almost invariably with open arms, the farmers turning out and supplying them 
with plenty of fresh milk, and the 
girls decorating the soldiers with 
flowers. At Havelock the men had 
breakfast, and about eighty wagons 

met the Regiment there. I well 

remember the excitement which 

existed at this point ; the women 

being bathed in tears, information 

having just been received that the 

Victoria Rifles had been engaged 

and almost literally cut to pieces. 

On arriving at Franklin Centre, we 

were supplied with a lunch under 

a shed at the back of the church. 

We arrived in Ormstown between 

7 and 8 o clock in the evening ex 
ceedingly tired and wet to the skin 

from the incessant rain which had 

fallen during the day. So complete 
ly exhausted were the men with 

this journey of about thirty-two 

miles that I considered it necessary 

to so report the state of matters and the inability of the Regiment to furnish guards that 

night. As a result of that report, some 40 or 50 young farmers volunteered for service, 

and patrolled the roads during the night. 

The following day we made camp near the Presbyterian church and the officers mess was 

formed in the McEachran Hotel. The strength of the Regiment on service at Ormstown was 

close on 400 men, a full Company also being at St. Johns under Captain Frank Bond, others 
on special duty in Montreal. The men were kept busy at work drilling at Ormstown, and 
nothing of moment occurred until the evening of the tenth of June when, about midnight, a 
trooper of the Montreal Cavalry galloped up to Headquarters and delivered a note to the 
Commanding Officer from the General Officer at Huntingdon that an attempt that night 
would be made to march a body of armed Fenians into Canada to commit depredations on the 
Beauharnois Canal and render it useless. It was directed that four companies of the Regi 
ment be sent to Anderson s Corner while the remainder of the Regiment should prepare itself 



against the possibility of a surprise. Four companies of the Regiment left about one o clock 
in the morning and had to march through a clay district. The night was intensely dark, 
and as the men were wearing unfitted boots, which had been sent out by the Relief Committee 
formed in Montreal, a large number of these boots stuck in the clay and were drawn off the 
men s feet. The consequence was a considerable number of boots were left in the clay, the 
men completing the journey in their stocking feet. Hay carts were sent out next morning 
and the boots recaptured. These boots, as a matter of fact, had been intended for the Victoria 
Rifles, and to reach them had to pass where the Prince of Wales Regiment was stationed. 
As the men of the Prince of Wales Regiment were almost bootless, they took possession of 
them. In the meantime the five companies remaining at Ormstown erected barricades and 
otherwise rendered themselves safe against the possibility of a surprise. On June i8th the 
Regiment left Ormstown and returned to Montreal via Beauharnois. At the latter place the 
Regiment were entertained to a sumptuous lunch. 

" Soon after my return, Dr. Scott, who was Surgeon, resigned and I was promoted to the 
Surgeoncy. I may add that Dr. Scott did not go to the front but was assigned duty at 
Montreal. From 1866 to 1870 nothing of moment occurred, the Regiment doing its Annual 
Drill regularly, turning oxit for reviews, and, on several occasions, for active service in 
support of Civil authority. During the deepening of the Lachine Canal the Regiment was 
called out to preserve peace on that work during a strike. 

" On May 24th, 1870, the orders for a Review had been issued. The Review was to 
take place at Logan s Farm. That day the whole Militia force of Montreal was called out 
for active service on account of a Fenian raid on the Eastern frontier. That evening a Com 
pany from each of the Montreal Regiments left for the frontier, making their way as rapidly 
as possible by Granby and Farnham, to Pigeon Hill. Little time was required to obtain a 
full Company of men from each Regiment. The volunteering for service was enthusiastic; 
the Prince of W T ales Regiment and other Regiments in a body offering for immediate service. 
At 4 o clock in the afternoon the service companies were inspected by Lieut.-Colonel Smith, 
Deputy Adjutant-General ; afterwards they left for the front, marching by Craig Street, 
Place d Armes Hill, St. James Street to Grand Trunk Railway and were played to the Depot 
by the bands of the Prince of Wales Regiment and Garrison Artillery. They left about 
seven o clock, amid the cheers of a large number of spectators. The following day the 
remainder of the Militia Force was put on active service, and on the evening of that day 
marched to Point St. Charles where they embarked for St. Johns by the Grand Trunk 
Railway. They arrived there about six o clock. Some of the officers obtained quarters in 
hotels and others in private houses, while the men were billeted among the neighborhood. 
We arrived at St. Johns on May 25th early in the evening. 

The Rifle Brigade under Lord Alexander Russell left Montreal for St. Johns early 
that morning. Prince Arthur, now Duke of Connaught, was an officer in the Rifle Brigade. 
Lord Alexander Russell assumed the command of the entire force, with Prince Arthur as 
one of his aides-de-camp. In the meantime Captain Gascoigne, now Major-General Com 
manding the Canadian Militia, who was here on special service, went to the front as Brigade 
Major. Just about midnight when everything was quieting down for the night, after all the 
men had been fairly well arranged for, word was received that the Fenians at Pigeon Hill 
who had that day engaged the service companies that had left Montreal the previous day, 
were to be reinforced during the night by large numbers of men, who had left St. Albans for 
that purpose. Orders were at once issued for the entire garrison then at St. Johns, with the 
exception of the Rifle Brigade, to move to Pigeon Hill without delay. The Prince of Wales 
Regiment formed part of the garrison. In addition to the entire Montreal Militia Brigade, 
the Richelieu Light Infantry, under command of Lieut.-Colonel Felix G. Marchand, formed 


a part of the force ordered to the front that night. Lieut-Colonel Marchand as senior officer 
assumed command of the Brigade. 

" We left St. Johns at midnight for St. Arniand, where we arrived between one and two 
o clock in the morning, having travelled very slowly in fear of any obstruction being put on 
the line. Immediately on disembarking at St. Armaiid the Regiment marched towards 
Pigeon Hill, and when within a mile of that place, we were met by an orderly, who informed 
us that our services were not needed, as the Fenian invasion had completely collapsed, and 
that all danger was over. After about an hour and a half to two hours rest the entire force 
retraced its steps to St. Arniand where it arrived about three or four o clock in the afternoon. 
Here the first attempt at giving the Brigade a good square meal was made, and the attempt 
was accompanied with many difficulties. To feed a force of some 1,500 men in a short time 
and without previous preparation and in a place like St. Arniand was difficult; still, after a 
good deal of trouble and the exercise of no small amount of patience, everyone was able to 


say that he got something. In the early evening the force returned to St. Johns, and 
remained there for about a week longer, when it returned to Montreal, and the men of the 
various corps returned to their usual avocations." 

When the Prince of Wales Regiment went on sen-ice in 1870, it was under the command 
of Lieut-Colonel Frank Bond, who, four years previously had commanded a company of the 
Regiment at the same place, during the Fenian raid in that year. 

Major E. L. Bond gives some additional interesting information about the Fenian raids 
and also of the Prince of Wales Regiment s subsequent career. He says : 

" I had just resigned as Captain of the High School Cadets and had obtained a first 
class certificate at the Military School when the Regiment was called out for the Fenian 
raid of 1866. Captain Frank Bond had been sent to St. Johns with a provisional company 
drawn from the Regiment, and shortly afterwards the balance of the Regiment was sent to 


the Huntingdon frontier under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Devlin. I was practically 
then in command of Number 6 Company. Orders were received about 5 a.m. and the entire 
Company was under arms about 6 p.m. In one or two cases the employers refused to let 
the men go, and the men would ask that a guard be sent down for them. When the Regi 
ment left for Hemmingford there was scarcely a man short. On arrival at Hemmingford, 
the men were placed in houses and barns for the night. The Prince of Wales Regiment was 
the first to be placed on outpost duty towards Malone. A few days afterwards the Regiment 
was moved to Durham, where they remained in camp during the balance of the trouble. 
When the Regiment first went out there was a strong feeling of doubt as to the loyalty of 
Lieut.-Colonel Devlin. This took root more particularly with what was then known as the 
Orange Company (Number 6) and it was stated that for the first week a couple of rifles 
were always kept loaded ; but under the Colonel s careful and kind attention to the men this 
feeling was entirely dispelled, and Colonel Devlin gained a popularity that he never 
subsequently lost. The Rev. W, B. Bond, (now Bishop of Montreal) was, as he now is, 
Chaplain of the Regiment. An enthusiastic welcome was given him when one day at 
Durham some wagons laden with provisions and cases of new rifles arrived with the 
Chaplain and Mr. T. R. Ramsay, (subsequently Judge Ramsay) borne on top of one of the 
loads. These same new rifles were nearly the cause of a mutiny. They were a very fine 
pattern of a new short rifle, and the senior officers were afraid they would be taken away from 
the Regiment on their return to town, if they were not used. Accordingly a field day with 
blank cartridge was ordered for a Sunday afternoon, an order that went very much against 
the grain of some of the old fashioned members of the Regiment, but the field da}- was carried 
out, much to the alarm of the neighborhood. No fighting occurred in the vicinity, although 
twice owing to alarms a portion of the Regiment was sent hurriedly out towards the frontier 
for outpost duty. In one case the mud was so heavy that men returned without their boots. 
The dearth of strong boots and clothing was the cause of great discomfort. Many men came 
out without a change and naturally the clothing worn became demoralized. One morning 
when the Regiment was drawn up for Adjutant s Parade a man was reported absent, and on 
enquiry he was found to be in his tent. Upon being sent for with a peremptory order to 
appear, he turned out with a blanket tied around his waist like a skirt, and upon being called 
to account, his action was fully justified, owing to the state in which his trousers were. 
" In 1870 occurred the second Fenian Raid. The Regiment, with the Montreal Brigade, 
moved out on a few hours notice to the Mississquoi County frontier, passing through St. 
Johns and arriving at St. Armand about daylight, where breakfast was given to the men ; 
and in addition to the breakfast, liquor was served pretty freely from two of the stores. 
I was on duty and reported the matter to the Commanding Officer. He gave orders that no 
more liquor was to be sold, but the order was simply laughed at. I was then ordered to 
take the proprietor out of his store and took him out, under corporal s guard, until the troops 
left, much to the disgust of the liquor seller, who threatened all sorts of reports to the 
Government for interference with a man s liberty. Immediatly after breakfast the Brigade 
marched to Pigeon Hill, the Prince of Wales Regiment in the van. Here again the 
Chaplain (the present Bishop of Montreal) was in possession, he having met the Regiment 
at St. Johns and marched out at its head from St. Armand to Pigeon Hill. On arrival at 
Pigeon Hill, we found that the Home Guard, supported by companies from the Prince of 
Wales Regiment and Victoria Rifles that had gone out the previous day, had completely 
routed the Fenians who, under General O Neil, had attacked them. The first Fenian who 
was shot fell dead just over the Boundary Line and was shot by a Home Guard at a range of 
1000 yards, and as the rifles which the Fenians had did not carry over 500 yards, it was a 
serious demoralization to them at the start. They made an attack and then retired behind 


the barns, soon followed by a hasty retreat into the States. The affair was well over when 
the Montreal Brigade arrived, and our men were able to pick up a large number of 
accoutrements, rifles and ammunition. The Fenian who was shot over the Boundary Line 
was buried at Eccles Farm, but was subsequently disinterred and carried away. 

" There has never been a time from the date of its organization up to the present that 
the Regiment has not been in serviceable condition. An example of the prompt manner in 
which it turned out was shown in connection with the Bread Riots at Quebec. Colonel Bond 
was out of town, and I was at my club when, at about at 5 P. M., the order came to parade the 
regiment to proceed to Quebec that evening. At 10 P. M. the full regiment, properly 
equipped, marched on board the cars at the G. T. R. station and, with the balance of the 
Montreal Brigade, were in Quebec by daylight the next morning. Colonel Bond, who had 
been in the country, arrived in Montreal after the Regiment left, and with Major McDougall 
of the Royals took a special car and overtook the regiment as they were entering Quebec. 
The regiment has always been under the very best discipline during all the time of raids, 
camps or inspections, there never being a time when it was not under the most complete 

" The Prince of Wales Regiment has the honor of inaugurating Regimental Temperance 


Societies. This occurred shortly after 1870, and much of the steadiness and discipline for 
which the regiment was noted may be fairly attributed to the strong under-current of tempe 
rance that has always prevailed among the men." 

Major John Rogers, who commanded Number One Company of the Prince of Wales 
Regiment at Eccles Hill, relates some interesting reminiscences of the Fenian Raids. 
During one night of the excitement in 1866, Major (then Captain) Rogers Company was 
placed as a guard over the Victoria Bridge, there being every reason to believe that the 
Fenians or some of their sympathisers intended to demolish that stucture, thus severing the 
rail communication between Montreal and the threatened frontier. A locomotive was placed 
by Mr. C. J. Brydges, then General Manager of the Grand Trunk Railway, at the disposal 
of Captain Rogers for patrolling purposes, and sentries were posted at each end of the bridge. 
During the night parties of men with fixed bayonets searched every train entering the bridge 
for Fenians. When the guard was dismounted the following morning Captain Rogers heard 
of the fight at Ridgeway the day before. 

In 1870 the regiment was at St Johns when a telegram arrived from Lieut. -Colonel 


Osborne Smith, commanding at Eccles Hill, stating that his force had been engaged and 
asking for ammunition and stores at once. A council of war was held, presided over by 
Colonel Elphinstone, commanding the Rifle Brigade, in which corps Prince Arthur was 
serving. As a result of the Council it was decided that lots should be drawn to decide which 
regiment should furnish and escort for the stores. The duty falling to the Prince of Wales 
Regiment, Number One Company was told off to proceed by train to St. Armand, and thence 
march nine miles to Eccles Hill. This latter part of the trip was rather a risky business as 
the road ran within a few hundred yards of the frontier. A few miles from Eccles Hill the 
Company was met by Muir s Cavalry and escorted to Smith s headquarters. That night the 
Company performed the outpost duty for the force. The picquet was so close to the frontier 
that the Fenians could be heard talking and challenging during the night, and the men were 
not even allowed to light their pipes. 

Canada never received one cent of compensation from the United States for the heavy 
expenditure and direct losses caused by these lawless raids from across the frontier, but the 
Canadian people were not altogether losers, for the self-reliance inspired by these crises has 
had not a little to do with the subsequent substantial development of the country, alike in 
the direction of material prosperity and of a wholesome national spirit. 

This Raid over, loud were the manifestations of joy on the part of the Canadian people, 
and generally throughout the empire expressions of admiration for the conduct of the Militia 
throughout this nerve-trying period were heard. Her Majesty conferred the title of Companion 
of the Distinguished Order of St. Michel and St. George upon Lieut.-Colonels Wm. Osborne 
Smith, John Fletcher, A. McEachran and Brown Chamberlain. These officers were invested 
with the insignia of the order in the St. Lawrence Hall by His Excellency Lord Lisgar on 
October i8th, 1870. The occasion was an unusually interesting one as it was the first case 
in which the then new order had been conferred on any colonial militia. During the 
proceedings the Governor General delivered a speech in which he said he wished to correct 
an erroneous impression which had been given abroad by some newspapers. They seemed to 
think that these distinctions had been given on representations from the Canadian 
Government. This" was entirely a mistake. Something had struck home to the British 
heart. The British people had admired the manner in which the Canadian volunteers had 
turned out after their re-organization. More men had come forward than were required. 
When, in the spring, a call had bsen made for but nine thousand men, some thirteen 
thousand had responded to the call to arms. This most praiseworthy patriotism had struck 
a chord in public opinion in England, and they had held public meetings and expressed 
their approval of it. 

Another thing with showed how highly the Canadian volunteers were regarded at home, 
was that a great many gentlemen, including the Lord Mayor of London, had raised a fund 
for the purpose of presenting prizes to be competed for by the riflemen of Canada. 

A few days before the interesting event to which the preceding refers, Colonel Bagot 
of Her Majesty s 6gth Regiment, who had acted as Brigadier in command on the Huntingdon 
frontier, took advantage of a dinner given in his honour by the officers of his late field 
command, including the Prince of Wales Regiment, to express the feelings of the officers of 
the regular army with regard to the spirit of their comrades in arms of the Canadian militia. 
The chairman of the dinner, Lieut-Colonel Fletcher, in proposing the toast of the guest 
of the evening, remarked that Colonel Bagot, in his services at the front, besides showing 
firmness and determination, had displayed a large share of generosity. For instead of 
allowing his own regiment at Trout River to lead the van and take the post of honour in the 
front, he had said to the volunteers : " Go on and meet the invaders of your country, I will 
support you. I want to see whether the Canadian volunteers cannot themselves drive 


the enemies of their beloved land back." Lieut. -Colonel Bagot in replying to the toast 
remarked : " When your chairman said that at Tront River I allowed to the volunteers the 
place of honour, he attributed my action to its true source. It appeared to me that when 
marauders and robbers, like the Fenians, invaded Canada that they should not have it to say 
that they had been met by the Royal troops. Men who were mere robbers should not 
be met by trained soldiers, but by the free soldiers of a free country ; men who leave their 
homes with! but one object in view, that of handing down to their sons this country of theirs 
free and intact, as the best heritage they could leave them. It was well that those who came 
here traitors to those principles of liberty which they professed to serve under, that they 
should be met and repulsed by the men who volunteered to defend their homes, which I felt 
they were quite capable of doing, though not trained soldiers. I have not always said 
pleasant things to the volunteers nor do I intend to flatter them, but the reason why I was 
able to act with firmness and decision on the night when I decided to attack the Fenians was 
because I felt that I had around me true English and Canadian hearts, which I know would 
not fail me, and next morning when the men marched past me on the way to Trout River, 
I saw the light of battle gleaming on their faces. It is a pity that we met no enemy worthy 
of our steel, for from the firmness and discipline of the men under my command, I felt that 


we could have met an enemy of ten times its strength." Colonel Bagot also remarked : 
"It is always a very easy matter for any officer of the army to return thanks in Canada. 
For it is a well known fact among red-coats that in no country does such close and friendly 
connection exist between the British Army and the people of the country. This most happy 
connection has, I feel, been very much strengthened by the intimacy and friendly feeling 
existing between the volunteers and the regulars. It is needless to say much about this, it is 
so perfectly known." 

Up to this time, the militia had had the great benefit of having the regular troops of the 
British Army in Canada, to inspire them with confidence and the spirit of military discipline. 
In no quarter of the world has the traditional valour of the British Army been shown to better 
advantage than in Canada, and the remembrance of many a glorious deed of desperate 
bravery and cool courage in the discharge of duty will forever live to serve as an inspiration 
to the Canadian militia. In April, 1869, the Imperial authorities signified their desire to 
withdraw their troops from Canada, and they were gradually removed from that time until 

7 1 

the First Battalion of the 6oth Kings Royal Rifle Corps, commanded by Colonel Charles B. 
Gordon, handed ever the Citadel of Quebec in the autumn of 1870 to Lieut.-Colonel Wiley, 
formerly of the Prince of Wales Regiment, then on the headquarters staff of the militia, 
acting for the Dominion government. By one of those singular co-incidences so often met 
with in history, it was the Second and Third Battalions of the 6oth, then known as the 
Royal Americans, who, under General Townsend, first entered and took possession of the 
Citadel after the surrender of Quebec by the French in 1759. The Royal Canadian Rifle 
Regiment, organized as an additional regiment of the British Army in 1841, and recruited in 
Canada, was disbanded in 1870 

Late in 1869 the first Riel Rebellion broke out, the ostensible cause being the objections 
of the half-breeds in the Red River settlement, now Manitoba, to the terms on which the 
country had been transferred to the new Dominion by the Hudson s Bay Company. Louis 
Riel, a French half-breed, who had received a liberal education in Montreal, proclaimed a 
provisional government, several loyalists were imprisoned, and one of them, Thomas Scott, was 
murdered in cold blood. Colonel, now Lord Wolseley, then Assistant Qiiartermaster-General 
of the Imperial troops in Canada, was sent to the remote scene of trouble with a force of 
about 500 men taken from the ranks of the 6oth Rifles which was then quartered in 
Canada, and two battalions of Canadian militia, one recruited in the Province of Quebec, the 
other in Ontario. There were several members of the Prince of Wales Regiment in the 
Quebec battalion. The tremendous transportation difficulties were overcome in a way that 
laid the foundation of Wolseley s subsequent success as a commander. Riel evacuated Fort 
Garry before the force arrived on August 24th, the prisoners were released, and the uprising 
put down without the firing of a shot. Wolseley has never forgotten his comrades of the 
Canadian militia, and in the midst of the worries and responsibilities of the Soudan campaign, 
in 1885, His Lordship found time to promptly congratulate them on the suppression of Riel s 
second rebellion. Two days after the taking of Batoche, General Middleton, in his prairie 
camp on the South Saskatchewan, received a cable message from remote Suakim which read 
as follows : " Best congratulations to you and my old gallant comrades of the Canadian 
militia. WOLSELEY." 

In 1884 Lord Wolseley secured the services of a corps of Canadian lumbermen and river 
pilots to assist in the transportation service on the Nile in connection with the expedition for 
the relief of Khartoum. These " Voyageurs", as they were called, were placed under the 
command of Lieut.-Colonel F. C. Denison of the Governor General s Body Guard, Toronto ; 
Lieut.-Colonel Kennedy of the goth Winnipeg Rifles being second in command, and Dr. 
Neilsou, of A Battery, R. C. A., Surgeon. The expedition failed to accomplish its mission, 
but through no fault of those engaged, and the Voyageurs were thanked for their services, 
and Lieut.-Colonel Denison received the C. M. G. 

The year following the return of Colonel Wolseley from Fort Garry, Louis Riel and 
some Fenian sympathizers having planned an attack on the Red River settlement, 200 
volunteer militiamen from Ontario and Quebec were sent up by the old Dawson route under 
command of Captain T. Scott. The threatened attack did not materialize however, the United 
States authorities promptly interfering, ordering several regiments to the frontier, and 
breaking up the bands of Fenians organized in Dakota near the Manitoba boundary. 



JUNE, 1871, the regiment participated in the big camp at Laprairie, and, in 
the autumn of the same year, was reqiiested by circular to furnish a quota 
for " A " and " B " Batteries, the nucleus of the Royal Canadian Artillery, 
then organized. On the 25th of June, 1872, the regiment proceeded by 
steamer "Dagmar" to St. Andrews, where the brigade camp of that year 
was held under command of Lieut.-Colonel Bacon, Acting District Adjutant- 
General. The parade of all the troops in camp for brigade drill was put under 
the command of Lieut.-Colonel Bond. As proof of the fact that members of the 
regiment continued to keep up their reputation as well-drilled soldiers, it is 
interesting to read in the orders of this camp that Sergeant (now Captain) John 
Porteous of the Prince of Wales Regiment was appointed Brigade Drill Instructor 
during this camp. During the summer of 1873, Lieut.-Colonel Bond being 
absent from headquarters on leave, Captain E. L. Bond took command of the regiment. 
This year the regiment put in its annual drill at headquarters, and was to a certain extent 
reorganized, as a very long regimental order, dated November i7th, explained. In this order, 
also, the " Lieut.-Colonel commanding congratulates the regiment on the two magnificient 
companies lately added to it". On January i3th, 1874, the commanding officer, in orders, 
expresses his appreciation of the alacrity exhibited by the new University Companies, 
4 and 5, Captains Armstrong and Roddick, in turning oxit on a very short notice as a guard 
of honour on the occasion of His Excellency the Governor General s departure for Ottawa, 
and also his admiration of their soldierly appearance and excellent discipline. These 
companies continued to be largely recruited from the students in attendance at McGill 
University for some years. On May 24th, 1874, the sergeants were given leave to proceed 
to Ottawa for the purpose of being present at the ceremony of the presentation of colours to 
the Governor General s Foot Guards by the Countess of Dufferin. 

A feature of the regimental life of the Prince of Wales Regiment is the long periods of 
service of many of its non-commissioned officers. Staff-Sergeant Thos. Elliott, at present 
serving as Orderly Room Clerk, received his first step in promotion, to be acting corporal, on 
the twenty-second of September, 1874. Private George Wallace, who joined Number Two 
Company on its organization in 1855 did not take his discharge until 1895, having served 
for forty years continuously in the same company as private. Captain John Porteous, who 
served in 1866 in the regiment and was sergeant-major and Assistant- Adjutant before 
taking a commission, is still an active member of the regiment. 

The annual inspection of 1874 took place on the Champ de Mars before Major-General 
Sir E. Selby Smith, who expressed himself as being thoroughly pleased. 

March i5th, 1875, Quartermaster-Sergeant Henry Harman, the senior non-commissioned 
officer of the regiment of that time, was granted his discharge after thirteen years service. 

In 1876, 1877 and 1878 the regiment participated in the reviews of the Montreal Brigade 
of Militia in honour of Her Majesty s birthday. 


During the summer of 1875 the regiment was on active duty for one day in connection 
with the rioting on the occasion of the first attempt to inter the remains of Joseph Guibord. 
This man, a humble printer, belonged to 1 Institut Canadien, an organization which 
maintained a library that included some volumes of somewhat advanced thought, and which 
had been placed under the ban by the Roman Catholic Church. Guibord s family owned a 
lot in the Notre Dame des Neiges Cemetery, controlled by the Fabrique de Notre-Dame , and 
his friends claimed the right to lay his remains therein. As belonging to an association 
placed under the ban, he was considered to have died outside the pale of the Church, and the 
ecclesiastical authorities refused to allow of the interment in consecrated ground. L Institut 
Canadien warmly took the matter up, being determined to compel the Clergy by process 
of law to permit the interment to take place as desired. A long and interesting series 
of complicated lawsuits followed, extending over several years, and finally the question 
was appealed to the very foot of the throne, and an order of the Imperial Privy Council 
obtained for the interment to take place. Meantime all that was left of the poor body of 
Guibord lay in a metallic casket in the vault of Mount Royal Protestant Cemetery. After 

the order of the Privy Council had been received the members 
of the Institut proceeded to carrv it into effect. The grave in 
Notre Dame des Xeiges Cemetery was opened, and one fine 
afternoon the remains of Guibord were removed from their long 
resting place and placed in a hearse for removal to the Roman 
Catholic Cemetery. A few of the members of the Institut fol 
lowed in carriages. When the little cortege arrived at the old 
gate of the cemetery, the gates were found to be closed in front 
of the hearse, which was greeted with jeers and various other 
hostile demonstrations by a large and ill-humoured mob which 
had assembled. As soon as the hearse was stopped a shower of 
stones was hurled at it, the plate glass windows of the vehicle 
were broken, the driver was struck in several places, and, wheel 
ing his horses rapidly around, he drove back to the Mount 
Royal Cemetery, followed by the mourners. The announcement 
of this defiance of the law caused a profound sensation in the City 
of Montreal and throughout the country. The military and 
civil organizations that very day were attending the public 
funeral tendered the remains of the late Chief Bertram of the 
Montreal Fire Department, and when the regiments returned to their armouries, they were 
held for duty in case of emergency for some time, and guards were posted at the armoiiries. 
It was at once recognized that the majesty of the law would have to assert itself, and as 
threats of further resistance to the interment were made, serious trouble appeared to be 

November i6th, 1875, was set as the date for the carrying out of the order of the highest 
court in the Empire, and on the requisition of Judge Coursol the whole of the Montreal 
Brigade was put under arms to aid the civil authorities if necessary. The 5th Royals, which 
one of the Prince of Wales Regiment veterans, Lieut.-Colonel Fletcher, had aided in organizing 
in 1862, was disorganized at this time, so that the force consisted of the Prince of Wales 
Regiment, the Montreal Cavalry, the Montreal Field Batter}-, Montreal Garrison Artillery, 
the Victoria Rifles and the 6th Hochelaga Light Infantry (now Fusiliers). Altogether, the 
force included 1,019 men and 63 horses. The whole was commanded by Lieut.-Colonel 
Fletcher, who had been appointed Deputy Adjutant-General of the Fifth Military District in 
succession to Lieut.-Colonel Osborne Smith in 1874. The brigade first inarched to the 



entrance of Mount Royal Cemetery where the casket containing the crumbling dust of poor 
Guibord \vas once more placed in a hearse and removed to the Roman Catholic Cemetery. 
This time a strong force of police accompanied by the Mayor of Montreal, Dr. Kingston, 
escorted the hearse, and entering the cemetery remained there until the interment had taken 
place. The militia brigade marched round from the Protestant Cemetery by the Outremont 
Road and took up a position in the village of Cote des Xeiges just outside of the Cemetery 
property. Some threatening demonstrations were made by a mob which had taken up its 
position on the bushy slopes overlooking the road, but no breach of the peace occurred, and 
the historic bones of Guibord, after being the cause of six years of turmoil, at last rested in 

In 1876 the 5th Royals were reorganized, largely through the efforts of Lieut.-Colonels 
Dvde, Fletcher and Bacon. 


Capl.Wm. Robinson. Adj. Major Frank Bond. Surg. F. W. Campbell. Lt. J. D. Armstrong. 

Cap:. Ceo. B. Pearson. Lt. Magnus Cormack. Capt. J. Rogers. Lt. H. J. Mudgc, 

Lt. J. Robinson. Capt. E. L. Bond. Capt. S. C. Stevenson, 

Major Alex. Milloy, Paym. Capt. F. S. Barnjum. Lt John Buimer Lt. Hy. Smith. 

Meantime a further prospect of active service for the Montreal militia was looming up. 
The Guibord disturbances had stirred up religious prejudices and race animosities in the 
community. Usually the people of Montreal present an honorable example to the world. 
Though the population consists of various races, and professes different religions, the people 
of the commercial metropolis generally live together in peace and harmony. The Guibord 
incident, however, stirred up much bad blood, and sectional feeling ran higher and higher as 
time went on. In 1877 much excitement was caused by the report that the Orangemen 
intended to parade the streets in a body on the Twelfth of July. Enemies of the order gave 


out threats that they would not allow such a demonstration to take place, and the situation 
looked very critical. Fortunately calmer councils prevailed, and the Orangemen confined 
the celebration of the anniversary of the crossing of the Boyne by King William to a quiet 
church service. After the service, a young Orangeman named Hackett was walking through 
Victoria Square on his way to his place of business when he interfered to protect a woman 
wearing an Orange lily, who had been intercepted by some men lounging about the square. 
The interference was resented, revolvers were drawn on both sides, and Hackett was shot 
dead, his body receiving many bullets before the firing stopped. The incident put the city 
and the whole country in an uproar. 

Barly in July the military authorities had scented trouble in the air. On the ninth, 
officers commanding corps were ordered to have all arms in the possession of the men 
immediately returned to their respective armouries. The same day a guard of the Prince 
of Wales Regiment, consisting of one officer and 14 non-commissioned officers and men, was 
mounted at the armoury, then in the old City Hall at Bonsecours Market. The duty was 
continued and the guard mounted on the nth of July was increased to two officers and forty 
non-commissioned officers and men. Captain and Brevet-Major Hatton was the field officer 
of the day. The following day, after the shooting of Hackett, a brigade order was issued, 
instructing officers commanding corps to have every available man under arms at their 
respective armouries with the least possible delay. That night the brigade passed under 
arms at their respective headquarters. Strong guards continued to be kept upon the armouries 
after that, and on the 1 7th, the date of Hackett s funeral, the whole brigade was again called 
out. The excitement in the city was intense. The local Orangemen had been reinforced for 
the occasion by "brethren" from all parts of Ontario and the Eastern Townships. They came 
with their regalia, their bands, their party tunes and their banners. Nothing could move 
them from the determination to make of the funeral a grand Orange display, though their 
enemies in the city and from without loudly proclaimed that such a demonstration should 
never take place in the streets of Montreal. At this critical juncture, Mayor Beaudry refused 
to call out the militia, claiming that the police force was quite strong enough to preserve the 
peace. Meantime the partizans of both parties armed themselves with revolvers, greatly 
increasing the risk of a riot. Finally the militia was called out on the requisition of four 
magistrates and did splendid service on the day of the funeral, being rapidly moved, a corps 
at a time, by side streets, from one part of the route taken by the funeral to another. On 
approaching the Mount Royal Cemetery, two companies of the Prince of Wales Regiment 
were sent ahead of the hearse, and advanced in extended order through the park on either 
side of the road, and down into the cemetery, it having been stated that a hostile mob would 
take up its position in the underbrush and open fire on the Orangemen. No mob was 
found, however, and these two companies were formed up inside the cemetery gates as the 
funeral entered. 

On November 3rd, 1877, the regiment passed its annual inspection before Lieut.-General 
Sir E. Selby Smythe, who, at the conclusion, complimented the regiment on its drill and 
appearance, and requested Colonel Bond to tell all ranks that he was glad to hear that men 
of all denominations were joining the regiment. 

The regiment was to have still another tour of active service this year. On December 
1 8th, a riot took place among the workmen engaged on the widening of the Lachiiie Canal 
at Cote St. Paul. At ten o clock at night the formal magisterial requisition for aid was 
forwarded to the militia authorities, and at seven o clock the next morning, TOO men of 
the Prince of Wales Regiment were under arms and on their way to the scene of disturbance. 
Lieut.-Colonel Frank Bond was in command, the other officers being Major George 
W. Hatton, Assistant Surgeon McConnell, Captains Mudge and Alex. Robertson; Lieutenants 


Tatlow, Kinnear, Patterson and Wilgress. The force was on duty for two days, and it 
proved anything but an enviable expedition. Mud and rain were plentiful, sentry duties 
exacting, and quarters of the very worst ; but the conduct of the men, throughout, was all 
that could be desired. 

The year 1878 was an exceptionally busy one for the Prince of Wales Regiment and the 
other Montreal corps. In June a serious strike of ship labourers took place in Quebec. 
Riots occured on the nth, and the rioters came into collision with B Battery, stationed at the 
Citadel, several of the artillerymen being seriously injured and some of the mob shot. The 
whole of the Quebec City Militia were put under arms and a requisition sent to the 
commanding officer of the Montreal Brigade for assistance. The requisition reached Colonel 
Fletcher at 6 P. M. on June lath. At ten o clock a special train bearing 649 men of the 
Prince of Wales Regiment, 3rd, and 5th Battalions left Montreal for Quebec. At daybreak 
the next morning the Montreal militiamen were inarching through the streets of the Citadel 
City. Lieut.-Colonel Bond was not in the city 
when the transport train left, but secured a 
special train and overtook his regiment as it was 
disembarking at Quebec. The Prince of Wales 
Regiment furnished the inlying picquet of three 
companies in the Citadel on June i3th and also 
a guard at the military laboratory. On the i4th 
the Regiment furnished a guard at the skating 
rink, where most of the Montreal force was 
quartered, and as the men were absolutely des 
titute of blankets, a very trying time of it they 
had. On the fifteenth the 3rd and 5th Battalions 
returned to Montreal, some of the Quebec corps 
were relieved from duty, and the Prince of Wales 
Regiment was quartered in the Citadel. The 
same afternoon, the Regiment paraded with the 
rest of the Quebec garrison to receive the Governor 
General on his arrival, and the next day returned 
to Montreal, all trouble being over. 

The Prince of Wales Regiment found itself 
in again for active service almost immediately 
on its return home. Ever since the stirring 
incidents following the shooting of Hackett, the 
previous year, there had been a strong under 
current of anxiety in Montreal, as to what the coining i2th of July would bring forth, 
and this anxiety developed into an almost fixed certainty of trouble and bloodshed when the 
authorities of the Orange order announced their determination to walk in procession through 
the streets of Montreal, and their enemies expressed themselves just as determined to stop 
them. Rumours of intended raids on the Militia armouries began to be bruited about early 
in June, and on the iSth a brigade order was issued for the mounting of a guard by the 
Prince of Wales Regiment of one subaltern, one sergeant, one corporal and nine privates 
at the armoury at the old City Hall ; " to secure the safety of the arms and government 
property in the building and to prevent the entrance of persons having no business there " 
Ten rounds of ball ammunition were issued to each man. These guards were increased in 
strength and maintained until some time past the middle of Jiily, each one of the city regi 
ments taking the duty in rotation. 



As the Twelfth of July approached excitement reached fever heat in Montreal. The 
various elements of the community, which usually agree so well together, appeared to have 
lost all confidence in one another, and frequent minor breaches of the peace appeared to be 
but preliminary skirmishes to bloody outbreaks on the Twelfth. There was much aggra 
vation on both sides, and ill-feeling spread even among sections of the community not 
immediately interested. Nervous people left the city, and banks and places of business were 
barricaded as were similar institutions in Paris during the Commune. The municipal 
authorities swore in a large number of special constables, but the citizens relied chiefly upon 
the militia for protection. When the morning of the Twelfth broke the city resembled an 
armed camp. Troops were quartered in all the large buildings and the lacrosse grounds were 
covered with white tents. Every city regiment was under arms, and as many men more had 
been brought in from the outside. Lieut.-General Sir E. Selby Smythe, commanding the 
Canadian Militia, came from Ottawa and personally assumed the command, disposing the 
force at his command so that in the case of mere incipient outbreaks the unpleasant task of 
suppressing them should fall on the outside troops; the risks of the city militiamen being 
compelled to confront their fellow citizens in arms, except in case of a general riot, being 
reduced to a minimum. 

The large force in Montreal on this exciting day was disposed as follows: The 53rd, 
(Sherbrooke), and 54th, (Richmond), Battalions, under command of Lieut.-Colonel the Hon. 
M. Aylmer, were stationed at Place d Armes Square. Batteries A and B of Artillery, with 
the gunners and drivers of the field divisions mounted and equipped as lancers, under Major 
Short, were stationed with the 5oth Huntingdon Borderers and 5ist Hemmingford Rangers, 
under Lieut.-Colonel Strange, R. A., on Victoria Square and Beaver Hall Hill. The nth 
Argenteuil Rangers were stationed in the Grand Trunk shops at Point St. Charles, while the 
Montreal Engineers and the 64th Beauharnois Rifles were stationed in the St. Helen s 
Island Barracks under Lieut.-Colonel Prudhomme. The other city corps, the Prince of Wales 
Regiment, the Montreal Cavalry, Montreal Garrison Artillery, 3rd Victoria Rifles, 5th 
Battalion, 6th Fusiliers, 65th Rifles and the St. Jean-Baptiste Infantry Company, were 
stationed on Dominion Square under command of Lieut.-Colonel Fletcher, C. M. G., D. A. G. 
The Montreal Field Battery, under Lieut.-Colonel Stevenson held itself in readiness to 
proceed rapidly to any point where its services might be reqiiired. Early in the morning the 
Orange leaders were arrested by order of the Mayor and no procession took place, though 
the lodges assembled in regalia at the lodge room. Altogether, 3,500 men were on duty in 
Montreal under arms on this occasion. Guards continued to be maintained on the city 
armouries for several days after the Twelfth, but there was no breach of the peace. 

During this year there was still a third call to duty in aid of the civil power. The 
contractors refusing to give up possession of the Q. M. O. & O. Railway, (now a part of the 
Canadian Pacific Railroad), when completed, to the Quebec Provincial Government, to whose 
order it had been constructed, trouble was feared and an appeal was made to the Militia 
authorities for protection for the officials of the government appointed to take the property 
over. On August 3ist Lieut.-Colonel Fletcher, as commanding officer of the district, 
received a requisition from the magistrates of Ste. Therese for military protection. B Battery 
furnished nine men, the rest of the force required being furnished by the Montreal militia 
as follows: Garrison Artillery, 50; 6th Fusiliers, 60; 651)1 Rifles, 120. On September 4th 
this force was relieved from duty, but on the iath of the same month trouble broke out again 
along the same line, and fifty men of the Prince of Wales Regiment under command of a 
captain and two subalterns were called out on active service and disposed in small detach 
ments at different points along the line between Montreal and Hull. One half of this force 
remained on duty until September 26th, the rest until October loth. 




1878, the Thirteenth Regiment of the National Guard of the State of New York, 
from Brooklyn, visited Montreal to participate in the celebration of Her 
Majesty s Birthday, and, as was quite fitting, considering that these inter 
national military visits had been inaugurated by it, the Prince of Wales 
Regiment took a very prominent part in the reception accorded to the visiting 
regiment. It is of genuine historical interest to recall the fact that the idea of coming 
to Montreal to participate in the Queen s Birthday review was originated by the 
Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, the famous preacher, and Chaplain of the I3th. Perhaps 
the most impressive of the many impressive incidents connected with this important 
visit was the reception of the visiting regiment as it disembarked from the steamer 
" Filgate " after running the rapids. A guard of honour composed of detachments 
of the Prince of Wales Regiment, Montreal Cavalry, Garrison Artillery, Victoria Rifles 
and 6th Fusiliers was drawn up on the wharf, and the Mayor, aldermen and other civic 
functionaries were present. The visiting regiment having been drawn up facing the guard 
of honour, the troops saluted, the Canadians leading off, their bands playing " Hail Columbia ", 
after which the i3th followed, their band playing " God Save the Queen". Mayor Rivard, 
attended by the aldermen, then advanced and met Colonel Austin, and addressed the 
visitors as follows : 

Your visit to our city to assist in celebrating the birthday of our beloved sovereign, 
evinces on your part the most cordial and friendly feeling, and as your regiment fitly repre 
sents the intelligence and the feeling that exists throughout the United States, we welcome 
you with a hearty good will in this peaceful invasion. We trust that the effect of your visit 
ma} be to cement yet more firmly the good feeling that binds the hearts of your people to 
ours. As a memento of your visit it is my pleasing duty to present to you, on behalf of our 
citizens, this flag, which has been prepared by the ladies of the officers of the Prince of 
Wales Regiment, our oldest volunteer corps. On your return home, we trust that the happy 
blending of the Stars and Stripes with the flag of our Dominion may be regarded by your 
people as an evidence of the friendly feeling that exists in the hearts of Canadians towards 
your great nation." 

Colonel Austin then accepted the flag, which was a beautiful silk one, one side being the 
" Stars and Stripes ", the other, the Canadian ensign, and asked the Chaplain to make the 
formal acknowledgment. 

In the course of his remarks the eloquent preacher remarked : " We accept this flag in 
that spirit of amity which inspires its giving. May the Stars and Stripes and the Union 
Jack , now for the first time so happily blended on one flag, float always side by side. For 
whatever the flags of other nations express, ours stand for the expression of the literature of 
liberty and religion, of humanity and progress. May our flags never be found against each 
other in war. May they ever go together, but never against each other. We shall place this 
flag in the most prominent place in our armoury, and when in the future we shall be favoured 


with a visit from you, we trust to be able to show you that your flag has never been 

The visit of the Thirteenth was marked by many acts of international courtesy. At the 
review on the Queen s Birthday, the Marquis of Lome, then Governor General, rode along 
the front of the line accompanied by H.R. H. the Princess Louise, and when they arrived in 
front of the Brooklyn regiment, His Excellency addressed Colonel Austin s command 
as follows : " Officers and men of the gallant Thirteenth, I welcome 3-011 to Canada, and 
I thank you for thus coming to honour our Queen s Birthday. We are brothers in blood, 
in language, and in the inheritance of great traditions. I rejoice that I can welcome you 
here as brothers in arms." 

In the evening a grand banquet, presided over by Major-General Sir Bdward Selby 
Smythe, was held in the Windsor Hotel. The Reverend Henry Ward Beecher, in a 
characteristic speech, in reply to the toast of the health of the President of the United 
States, speaking of Canada, remarked : " Once, twice the people of the United States 
tried to take it, and did not get it. A fringe of Fenians once tried to take it, and got a good 
deal more than they wanted. It might be said to the immortal glory of the Brooklyn 
regiment, that it is the first regiment in America that has ever taken Canada. It might be 
said of them, in the langxiage of the Apostle : The weapons of our warfare are not carnal. 
They brought their hearts, and their Canadian brethren accepted them. The object of their 
visit was to cultivate a more friendly feeling between the two branches of one family after so 
long a separation. Blood is stronger than water, and after all, and in spite of all, our hearts 
are towards Motherland. These are not only the sentiments of those who are present, but of 
the whole American people. Their hearts are toward the English nation." 

The Marquis of Lome, in acknowledging the toast of " The Governor General," took 
occasion, again, to thank the officers of the i3th regiment, for the attendance of the regiment 
at the review, saying in part : " I believe I am not misinterpreting the feelings of the 
officers here present when I say that very many Americans, not only those of the British race, 
but many others, wear, in one sense, the Queen s colour in their hearts, not only because she 
is the Queen of that old country with which so many of their most glorious memories are 
forever identified that old country of which they are in their hearts as proud as I can 
honestly say England is of them but also because the Americans are a gallant nation and 
love a good woman. They have lent us a helping hand to-day, and I believe they will 
always be ready to do so, should occasion arise on which we may ask them to stand by us." 

During the two years preceding this time there had been considerable excitement in 
Canada over the wars in Zululand and Afghanistan. 

It deserves to be mentioned here that in 1877, when one of the periodical war clouds in 
the East appeared unusually ominous, Lieut.-Colonel Bond, with the full concurrence of his 
officers, volunteered to raise a regiment in Canada for service in the East should such be 
required, and he received hundreds of letters from different individuals in various parts of 
America, who desired to serve the Queen xinder his command ; several of the officers of the 
regiment at this time personally volunteered their services. No less than 10,000 Canadian 
militiamen volunteered these services to the Empire. 

His Excellency the Marquis of Lome took occasion in a speech referring to the preceding, 
to give expression to his appreciation of the loyalty shown in the matter in question. The 
Marquis remarked: "Our militia force is large in numbers, and we have had during the last two 
years the best proof of the spirit with which it is animated. I should be neglecting an important 
duty were I not to take this opportunity of tendering the warmest thanks of Her Majesty and 
of the Imperial authorities at home to those gallant officers of the Canadian militia force who 
have of late, so often, offered themselves for service in active warfare, and to assure them that 


though it was not necessary to take advantage of their offers, that their readiness to serve has 
none the less been valued, noted and appreciated, and that the patriotic spirit which binds 
together all branches of onr Queen s army in whatever quarter of the world the}- may stand, 
and from whatever race the} 1 may spring, is seen with pride and satisfaction. And, gentle 
men, although the bearers of commissions in our militia service have not been able to show 
their devotion personally to their Sovereign and country among the loft}* ranges of 
Afghanistan, or on the bush covered slopes of Zululand, yet the news of the distant contests 
waged in these regions, has, we know, been watched here with as close an interest, as intense 
and hearty a sympathy as in Britain itself ; and the sorrow at the loss of such gallant officers 
as Northey and Weatherley, has been shared with our comrades-in-arms in the old country, 
not only because the same uniform is here worn, but also because the honoured dead are 
united with our people by the ties of the closest relationship. The dividing seas have not 
sundered the brotherhood which the love of 
the gracious Sovereign, and the passion for 
freedom, make the lasting blessing of the great 
English communities ; and just as our country 
shows that she can strike from the central 
power whenever menaced, so will her children s 
states, wherever situated, respond to any call 
made upon them, and prove that England s 
union with her great colonies is none the less 
strong becavise it depends on no parchment 
bonds or ancient legal obligations, but derives 
its might from the warm attachment, the living 
pride in our Empire, and the free will offerings 
of her loving, her grateful, and her gallant 


In 1880 the Prince of Wales Regiment took 
part in the review on the Plains of Abraham 
Quebec, before H. R. H. the Duke of Albany, 
H. R. H. the Princess Louise and the Marquis 
of Lorne in honour of Her Majesty s Birthday. 
Nearly 3,000 troops participated. 

Major Barnjum of the Prince of Wales 
Regiment was for many years the Drill Ins 
tructor of the Montreal High School Cadet 
Rifles, a corps which always maintained a high 
standard of efficiency under his instruction, and 

which furnished a large number of officers to the militia and the regular army, among them 
the late Captain Mackay R. E., D. S. O. 








YEAR 1885 w ^l always be a memorable one in the history of the 
Canadian militia as the year of the Northwest Rebellion. Ever since 
1878 there had been more or less agitation among the half-breeds of 
the Northwest Territories to secure a recognition of their rights to 
participation in the issue of scrip which had been made to the half- 
breeds of Manitoba in consideration of the extinguishment of the Indian 
title. In 1878 the Saskatchewan Metis or half-breeds petitioned that 
there be granted to all half-breeds who had not participated in the 
distribution of scrip and lands in the Province of Manitoba, other scrip and 
grants of land as in that Province. This petition and others were not attended 
to, and demands and dissatisfaction increased among the half-breeds. Occasion 
ally reports of uneasiness among the half-breeds were published in the 
But the seat of the trouble was a long way off, the story was an old one, 
and the public and even the politicians paid little attention to the matter. In 1883 
Louis Riel visited his old haunts in Manitoba and became the subject of newspaper 
comments. The half-breeds, enjoying the privileges of neither the Indians nor the white 
settlers, were at this time developing a feeling of hostility toward the Government. Race 
animosity, restraint under constituted authority and the encroachment of settlement, all 
helped to aggravate the already critical situation produced by delay in remedying just 
grievances. Riel was a natural agitator, intensely fond of popularity and power among his 
own people, and possessed of more education, plausibility and popularity than common sense. 
His visit to Manitoba could hardly fail to produce important results, but yet it commanded 
little public attention. Mass meetings were held along the Saskatchewan, grievances 
multiplied among the Metis, and to these were soon added a distinct series of grievances, real 
and imaginary, on the part of the Indian tribes. In June, 1884, serious trouble took place at 
Battleford, on the North Saskatchewan, with Pouudmaker s powerful tribe of Cree Indians, 
the settlers being obliged to vacate their houses and take refuge in the fort. This cloud, 
however, passed over and nothing was thought of it, so accustomed were the Canadian people 
to relying with confidence upon that heroic military force, the Northwest Mounted Police, 
to preserve the peace on the prairies. In June, 1884, the Metis living along the shores of the 
Saskatchewan despatched a committee of four of their number to invite Riel to come from 
Montana and live among them in the hope of aiding them to better their condition. Early in 
July, 1884, Riel and his family arrived at Duck Lake, a Metis settlement midway between 
the North and South banks of the Saskatchewan. This event was at once reported by the 
Police authorities, but the announcement caused but little comment. Before the end of July 
the Government was notified that there were rumours about at Battleford that Riel had said 
things to the Indians that were intended to cause discontent among them. During this year 
the Government took the precaution of disarming the volunteer companies in the Territories, 
and arrangements were made with the Hudson s Bay Company to occupy Fort Carleton on the 

North Saskatchewan as a Mounted Police outpost. Meantime Riel organized committees, 
meetings were held, resolutions passed, and a general agitation got under way. Riel, to 
strengthen his position with his more ignorant fellow-countrymen, conjured up a number of 
vague claims, which excited the public mind in the Metis settlements and caused anxiety 
among the officers of the Northwest Mounted Police. Meeting after meeting was held during 
the winter of 1884-5 an d grievance after grievance unearthed or trumped up. On the nth 
of March Superintendant Crozier, of the Northwest Mounted Police, telegraphed from Carleton 
to the headquarters of the force, Regina, that the half-breeds were greatly excited ; that it was 
reported the} threatened an attack on Carleton before the i6th, and that they were getting 
arms ready. Colonel Irvine, commanding the Police, on the i4th of March telegraphed to 
Ottawa for authority to march from Qu Appelle to the North Saskatchewan with a reinforce 
ment of 100 men for the force at Prince Albert, Carleton and Battleford. The permission was 
given the following day. 

Early on the morning of the i8th Lieut.-Colonel Irvine left Regina with 90 officers and 
men of the Police. The next day Major 
Crozier, commanding the Police at Battle- 
ford reported from Carleton that the half- 
breeds were gathering at Batoche and had 
made prisoners of the telegraph operators 
and other white men at that point. Irvine 
reached Prince Albert on the 24th, having 
completed a march of 291 miles in seven 
days, an average daily travel of 42 miles. 
So far the people of Eastern Canada had 
not come to be particularly interested. 

The announcement that the half- 
breeds were in actual revolt came with 
dramatic suddenness. The people of East 
ern Canada, over a thousand miles distant 
from the scene of the uprising, did not 
appear disposed to take the news seriously 
until, on Alarch 23rd, the Winnipeg Free 
Press published a short despatch from 
Prince Albert reading as follows : " Louis 
Riel has thrown off the mask and now 

openly defies the Queen s authority. He says he has the half-breeds and Indians entirely 
under his control ; that the Northwest Mounted Police force is a mere nothing, and that 
their authority shall not be respected." 

In the House of Commons the same day, Sir John Macdonald, then Premier, in reply to 
a question, remarked : " It is true that a number of half-breeds, instigated and led, I believe 
by Louis Riel, have cut the wires and stopped communication between Qu Appelle and the 
crossing of the South branch of the Saskatchewan. The immediate cause of the rising is not 

On the 26th the first shots of the rebellion were fired, and Canada was thrown into a great 
state of excitement from one end to the other. Crozier with 99 men and a seven pounder 
went from Carleton to Duck Lake to secure some ammunition and provisions from one of the 
stores. The force was attacked by 200 half-breeds about a mile and a half from Duck Lake, 
and before they could withdraw eleven men of Crozier s force were killed and eleven wounded. 
The force retired to Carleton, where Irvine had, in the meantime, arrived. Irvine, considering 

it essential to the protection of the town of Prince Albert to concentrate his force at that point, 
was making arrangements to evacuate Carleton, when the historic old fort caught fire, and 
the troops were forced to take up their long march to Prince Albert before day-break on the 
28th. Meantime the news of the action at Duck Lake caused the greatest excitement 
throughout Canada. The law had been set at defiance, loyal blood spilled, and treachery and 
blood-thirstiness shown by the rebels. With splendid unanimity the people of Canada, from 
one end to the other, demanded that the authority of the law should be asserted at whatever 
cost. The first call for the enrollment of militia was issued on the 27th of March, and 
was met with a prompt and enthusiastic response. Over two thousand troops were at first 
ordered out. Before the campaign was over, 5,400 men were under arms, and if they 
had been needed, 40,000 men could have taken the field within a fortnight of the fight 
at Duck Lake. The trouble was not to get the required number of men, but to avoid giving 
offence to the corps not called out. Among the first corps ordered out, the 65th Mount Royal 
Rifles was the only representative of the Montreal Brigade, although all of the regiments 
were in a fine state of organization and anxious to go to the front. The government appeared 
to have realized the great importance of keeping a large proportion of the Montreal militia at 
home, particularly as rumours of Fenian activity were associated with the news of Riel s 
preparations, and it was recalled that after the collapse of the first Riel trouble in 1870, proof 
had been forthcoming that the half-breed agitator had been in communication with the 
Fenian leaders. 

A press despatch dated Fargo, Dak., March 27th, read : " It is rumoured that the Fenian 
organizations in the Northwest are making active attempts to aid Riel." The same day the 
New York "Joivrnal " published an interview with the notorious O Donovan Rossa in which the 
agitator claimed that the Fenians were co-operating with Riel. On April 4th the Ottawa 
papers announced that the Government had received information that three hundred Fenians 
were prepared to leave New York to aid Riel. 

To the last, all of the Montreal corps lived in hope of being called upon to share in the 
campaign, but the services of only two more were called into requisition, and the Prince 
of Wales Regiment was one of them. On the nth of May the Montreal Garrison 
Artillery left by train for the West, and on the same day the Prince of Wales Regiment 
was called out for active service, and two days after, every man having previously undergone 
a thorough medical inspection, the regiment went into camp on the Exhibition Grounds 
expecting every moment to receive the welcome order to embark for the scene of operations. 

The order calling the regiment out for active service was received at midnight, and at 
eleven the next day, the roll was called, and not a man was absent. The regiment was in 
full strength, and there were so many applications to enlist that the regiment could have 
easily been recruited to three times its authorized strength. Many of the applicants were 
retired members of the regiment. 

The officers of the regiment on this occasion were as follows : 

Lieut-Colonel Frank Bond, Commanding; Major E. L. Bond, Adjutant; Major John 
F. Nott; Major T. P. Butler; Paymaster, Captain W. L- Heron, G.G.F.G., replacing for this 
service Major Milloy ; Quartermaster, Captain Wm. Johnson ; Chaplain, Right Rev. W. B. 
Bond, Bishop of Montreal ; Assistant Chaplain, Very Rev. Jas. Carmichael, Dean of Montreal; 
Surgeon, Dr. T. G. Roddick, who, being appointed Deputy Surgeon-General proceeded at once 
to the Northwest on the General Staff; Assistant Surgeons, Drs. G. T. Ross and R. H. 
Wilson ; Captains, E. Kirk Greene Jr., Stewart Campbell, C. D. Hanson, D. Sincennes, James 
M. Paul and G. F. Cooke; Lieutenants C. de B. Leprohon, W. E. Bradshaw, R. W. Gambier- 
Bousfield, A. S. Henshaw, C. H. Godfrey, Thos. Tait, Frank Scott, W. Abbott, H. S. Hunter, 
Laughton Clarke, H. A. Drummond, A. R. Cuthbert. 


On June gib, the regiment was relieved from active service and the officers and men were 
permitted to resume their ordinary avocations. The ready response of the regiment to the 
call of duty at the first muster merited and received the warm praise of the citizens of 
Montreal generally, and from that date down to the date of dismissal from active service the 
high appreciation by the public of the bravery and efficiency of the regiment increased, and 
there was a large attendance of citizens at the Champ de Mars when the regiment underwent 
an inspection before Lieut. -Colonel Worsley, Acting D. A. G., prior to dismissal. Before the 
regiment marched off the parade ground it was addressed by the inspecting officer, who 
remarked : You have now been on active service for one mouth, and during the time which 
you have been under my command not a single man has been brought before me on any 
complaint. From what I have heard from the citizens of Montreal nothing could be better 
than your behaviour while you were on active service. In the name of the Militia Depart- 


Lt. A. Ruthbert. Lt. Col. Frank Bond Major T P. Butler Lt. Clarke 

Capt. W. L. Heron Major E. L. Bond Lt. Frank Scott Lt H. A. Druinmond 

Major J. F. Nott Lt. W. E Bradshaw Lt. Arthur S. Henshaw Lt. Jas. M Paul Capt. \Vm. Johnson 

Dr. R. H Wilson Lt. Chs. H. Godfrey Lt. R . W. G. Bousfield Lt. Claude de B. Leprohon 
Capt G. F. Cooke Capt. S. Campbell Lt. Win. Abbott 
Lt. Thos. Tait Capt. C. D. Hanson 

ment of the Dominion I thank you, Colonel Bond and officers and every member of this 
corps, for the manner in which you turned out to the call of duty. I regret that the wish of 
each and every man of you to go to the front has not been gratified. At the same time I 
think that you have been quite as happy on the camping ground as you would have been at 
Winnipeg, for from the turn events took, in all probability you would not have proceeded 
further than that if you had left Montreal. At all events I can answer for this. You 
behaved like the brave citizen soldiers that you are, and any country in the world ought to 
be proud to have such a body of brave, well behaved men." 


His Worship Mayor Beaugrand also asked for the privilege of addressing the regiment, 
saying in the course of a stirring speech : " I congratulate you on your excellent appearance 
and your perfect drill, which were the subject of general remark by the citizens who witnessed 
you manoeuvres to-day. Your ready response to the call of duty has distinguished your 
regiment. Canada has now seen that she wants her volunteers, and for the future it will be 
the duty of every Canadian, whether he be a private citizen, a member of Parliament, a 
minister of the Crown or not, to see that the wants and requirements of the force are attended 
to. In the name of the citizens of Montreal, I thank you for the ready manner in which you 
have responded to the call of the government, and I thank you for the brave spirit which 
prompted you to wish for active service in the defence of the country. If the Prince of Wales 
Regiment did not go to the front they were willing and anxious to go ; and again, in the 
name of the citizens of Montreal, I thank you for that sentiment." 

Strange as it may seem, the Prince of Wales Regiment received no recognition of its 
services in 1885. It is true enough as Wolseley says in "The Soldiers Pocket Book," that 
" the only rewards that are justly our due are the gratitude of our country and the praise of 
our superiors " ; but considering that a practical and very simple way had been devised for 
showing the country s gratitude towards the men who served her in 85, it is difficult to 
appreciate the justice of ignoring in the bestowal of these favours a regiment which had 
responded in a gallant spirit to the call to arms at the very moment when it appeared that 
the Northwest Rebellion was going to result in a much more bloody and arduous campaign 
than appeared at all likely at first. 

It will be recollected taht the campaign was brought to a most successful conclusion by 
the end of June, and the victorious militia returned home early in July. Riel, the man 
responsible for the whole uprising, his half-breed lieutenants, and Poundmaker and Big Bear, 
his chief Indian allies and dupes, were in prison, and the last particle of resistance to the 
constituted authority had been stamped out. This result was extremely creditable to the 
Canadian militia, and added not a little to the prestige of the force s veteran and gallant chief, 
Major-General, now Lieutenant-General, Sir Fred Middleton. The operations of the 
campaign extended over an immense area. The force actually employed had to be devided into 
three widely separated independent columns, each with an immense transport service to 
organize and a lengthy line of communication to protect. While this meant tremendous 
work for the general officer commanding, it, at the same time, signified heavy marching and 
great privations for the men. 

At the opening of the campaign recognized authorities on Indian warfare in the United 
States Army declared that Canada would be fortunate if she succeeded in suppressing 
the uprising before the end of the year. But for the difficulty he experienced in obtaining 
reliable information, and a regrettable panic at Battleford which necessitated a change of his 
original plans and an unnecessary division of force, Middleton would have smashed the 
Rebellion in much shorter order than he did. The General s main idea, and it was surely one 
which did his humanity credit, was to put an end to the Rebellion with as little loss of life as 
possible on either side, and with this object, his intention was to make a descent upon 
the main rebel position at Batoche with a force strong enough to look down all opposition and 
convince Riel s mistaken dupes that opposition was hopeless. This plan being thwarted by 
the necessity of despatching Lieut.-Colonel Otter s column in wagons to Battleford, which was 
needlessly alarmed at the prospect of being attacked by Poundmaker, the General had 
nothing to do but go on towards Batoche with such men as he then had with him, as he was 
then well advanced from his base of operations. The facts that the rebels had prisoners, and 
that a more general uprising of Indians was threatened if an advance was not made, urged 
him to advance without waiting for further reinforcements to reach him. 


April 1 8th the Winnipeg papers published an item stating that the half-breeds boasted 
that they would ambush Middleton. The General was not notified of this report, but from 
the first movement of his force he took the precaution of covering the flanks and front of his 
column with screens of mounted scouts, and instrvicted the officers commanding the other 
columns to do likewise. 

While advancing towards Batoche on the 24th April with his force of some 700 men 
divided into two columns, one on either side of the South Saskatchewan, Middleton was 
unexpectedly attacked by a large force of half-breeds and Indians under command of Gabriel 
Dumont, the military leader of the rebellion, who hoped to capture the General and artillery and 
stampede the whole force by a sudden flank attack from an ambush which he skilfully made 
in a deep, wooded ravine, locally known as Tourond s Coulee, along which the Batoche trail 
leads for a short distance before crossing Fish Creek. Thanks to the screen of cavalry which 
the General kept extented in advance of and on the flanks of his column, and which many 
of those who were used to the country declared to be perfectly useless, the ambush was 


disclosed before the infantry advance guard had come within range of the ravine. The 
militia gallantly met the abortive attack which Dumont s men were forced to make, and the 
half-breeds returned to Batoche without their expected prisoners and artillery. For nearly 
two hours there was heavy firing on both sides, when, all of the troops having got into advan 
tageous positions, Dumont and the half-breeds made their way out of the Coulee and hurried 
off towards Batoche, leaving a number of Sioux Indians, who were cut off in an angle of the 
ravine, to their fate. A couple of plucky attempts were made to dislodge these men, but as 
they were in a strong position from which it would have cost many lives to dislodge them, 
the General refused to have the attempt renewed. A camp was pitched near the river bank, 
the column from the other side of the river was ferried over, and during the night the Sioux 
made their escape from the Coulee. 

The fight, though the rebels failed to accomplish their purpose, indirectly benefitted 


them, inasmuch as it delayed the advance of the force. The force had lost in the fight ten 
killed and forty-three wounded, an exceptionally large proportion of the small number engaged. 
The wounded could not be moved, there was no place available then to move them to, the 
force was too small to spare an adequate guard to leave there with a field hospital, and so the 
whole column had to halt while the surgeons were solving the difficult}-. Finally a field 
hospital was established at Saskatoon, a settlement some distance to the rear, and the wounded 
despatched thither on the first of May. A halt of a few days more was then deemed 
necessary, as the supply of ammunition was running low, and a consignment with a small 
reinforcement of men was on its way down the Saskatchewan on the steamer " Northcote." 
How, after three days fighting, Batoche was finally taken by a rush of the infantry 
skirmishers, supported by the artillery, is now a matter of national history, and so are the 
stories of the capture of Riel and of the fruitless fight between Poundmaker and Lieut.- 
Colonel Otter s force, operating from Battleford, at Cut Knife Hill on the second of May. At 
Batoche eight of the troops were killed and forty-six wounded, at Cut Knife the losses were 
eight killed and fourteen wounded. Less familiar are the particulars of the two actions at 
Frenchman s Butte and Loon Lake where General Strange s force, and a small mounted 
column under Major Steele of the Northwest Mounted Police engaged Big Bear s greatly 
superior force among the muskegs and lakes of the far North. At Frenchman s Butte the 
65th Mount Royal Rifles behaved most gallantly, while the fight at Loon Lake was conceded 
by those who were acquainted with the particulars to be the most dashing affair of the whole 

Some really splendid marching was done by the Canadian militia during this campaign, 
in spite of the bad weather and worse roads. On the first days march only eleven miles was 
covered by Middleton s own column, the Northwest Field Force. The road up the north 
bank of the Qu Appelle was very steep and in bad order, the snow beginning to melt. The 
night was fearfully cold, the thermometer at sunrise the next day being 23 below zero. The 
tent pegs had to be cut out of the ground with axes. The succeeding days marches were as 
follows: 18 miles, 23, 19, 20, 22, 23, 17. Much longer days inarches were made later, but 
the men by that time were seasoned. These marches were made by the city men fresh from 
their offices and workshops, over roads covered with slush of snow and mud, frequently in the 
face of fierce blizzards of snow and hail, and on several cases having to wade through streams 
of ice-cold water almost up to their waists. The 65th Mount Royal Rifles had their first 
march of the campaign across an ice covered bay on the North of Lake Superior at one of the 
then uncompleted gaps of the C. P. R., between 22 and 25 miles across. On the march of the 
Alberta Field Force, under General Strange, from Calgary to Edmonton, 220 miles, the 65th 
covered 35 miles in one day. The best march of the whole campaign was made by the 65th 
and the rest of the Alberta Force on the 24th of June, when they covered no less than 45 
miles over a rough road through muskeg and bush, cut by their own pioneers a few days 
before on the mosquito-beset march to Beaver River to head off Big Bear. The death roll of 
the campaign included 38 names, not counting the rebels, and the number of wounded 
was 115. 




EARTILY enthusiastic was the reception the people of Eastern Canada 
accorded the troops on their return from the front. The campaign, the 
first conducted altogether by Dominion troops, made the people of Canada 
pardonably proud of the militia and of themselves. 

The complete suppression of this formidable uprising in such a short 
space of time as three months was really a most creditable performance 
from a military point of view. Petty jealousies and the exigencies of party 
politics for a time threatened to deprive of his fair share of credit, the gallant 
and withal considerate and cautious old soldier to whose generous, constant 
encouragement, courageous, self-sacrificing example, long military experience, 
natural wisdom and untiring devotion, the splendid success of the campaign 
was largely due. When General Middleton arrived on the scene of operations 
he found a most difficult problem facing him, and his difficulties increased with the campaign. 
It has been charged that such a large force as was called out was not required, but this 
criticism is absurd. Doubts were raised as to the loyalty of all of the widely scattered Indian 
tribes and half-breed settlements in the whole of the vast Northwest Territories, and the 
white settlements, one after another, demanded protection. The uprising extended along 
a strip of territory, from two to three hundred miles north of the line of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway, and stretching from Edmonton, in the west, to Priuce Arthur and Batoche, in 
the east, a distance of five hundred miles, more or less. Owing to the panic at Battleford, 
and to the depredations of Big Bear s band in the Edmonton District there was no alternative 
but to operate in three distinct columns. The three lines of communication thus necessitated 
were from a hundred and fifty to two hundred and seventy-five miles in length, and they had 
to be covered, particularly as they were mere prairie trails running through a perfectly 
unsettled country, leaving the transport wagons and field depots open to attack. Beside the 
men required to afford some show of protection for the base and the lines of communication, 
it was found necessary, owing to the absence of labour on the prairies, to employ a couple of 
battalions in handling and forwarding stores, which unsatisfactory duty was done by the 
troops so employed with admirable good will. 

The transport difficulties during the campaign were well nigh incredible. No supplies, 
either for men or horses, were procurable along the lines of communication. Until the grass 
covered the barren prairie towards the end of April, the hastily improvised transport service 
was able to do little more than move forward sufficient forage and food rations for its own 
teams and teamsters. Until the Saskatchewan was reached no sweet water was procurable, 
and the column had to carry wood along with it to allow of tea being made from the alkali 
water in the creeks and sloughs (or little lakes) along the trail. 

The militia received unstinted praise from the General for the splendid manner in which 
they performed their duties in camp, on the march, or under fire, and they deserved it. 



m + 


1 Sergt. -Major John Watson 

2 Armoury-Sergt. James Warren 
o rnim-Maior \V. Beech 


4 StafF-Sergt. A. Lindsay 

5 " J. W Bangs 

() " Fred. Donaldson 

7 StarT-Sergt. Jas. Cooper, Jr 
K " T. C. Elliott 

" A. Hatchelor 

10 Staff-Sergl. B. Coffin 

11 Col. -Sergt. John Norris 

12 " A. W. Ross 
1H " A. Ferguson 
H P. McDonald 


1 Col.-Sergt. Fred. Sobey 

2 S-rgt. Wm. Woolley 
;i Col.-Scrgt. F. Rogers 
4 Sergt. Wm. Goodbody 

o Sergt. F. Pingle 

6 " F. Livingston 

7 " Wm. Hudson 

8 " Jas. Dempsey 

9 Sergt. Jos. Pitm;in 
1U " A. Fyfe 
11 " John Urysdale 
r-> " J. Y. Clarke 
Cycle Sergt. D. W. Ross 

IS Sergt. Jas. Mel). Denovan 

11 " H. Patterson 

13 " U. McCallutn 

IB " W. J. Pendleton, Jr. 

But some of the " gentlemen of Canada who dwelt at home at ease " and who so freely 
and learnedly criticised the General for not clearing the Sioux Indians out of their holes 
in Tourond s Coulee at Fish Creek and for not " putting the Boys in " the first day at 
Batoche, appear to forget that Middleton was in command of a force which, with the 
exception of the small detachments of the permanent artillery and infantry, was composed of 
young soldiers with only a superficial idea of discipline, but little confidence at first in either 
themselves or their officers, and with insufficient knowledge of drill and tactics to appreciate 
the significance of, or enter into the spirit of, the system of organized disorder on which 
the modern attack in extended order is based. It requires troops under pretty perfect 
discipline and with some battle training to preserve sufficient cohesion in extended order 
to " rush " wooded ravines and lines of formidable rifle pits manned with reputed (if over 
estimated) expert marksmen. By the time Lieut.-Colonel Van Straubenzie, Middleton s 

infantry brigadier, led the Royal Grenadiers, the goth Winnipeg 
Rifles and two companies of the Midland Battalion in the final 
rush on the rebel rifle pits at Batoche, officers and men alike 
had acquired the necessary discipline and experience. Before 
the end of the campaign Middleton s force would have faced 
anything in the way of opposition with complete confidence. 

Of the three points on the base of operations from which 
columns were pushed forward to the front, the nearest, Qu Ap- 
pelle, is 1 748 miles from Montreal by rail ; Calgary, the most 
remote, 2264 miles. 

Hardly had the members of the regiment settled down to 
their private business again, after the Rebellion, before it was 
placed on active service again, this time in aid of the civil power. 
Montreal was visited by a serious small-pox epidemic in the 
summer and autumn of 1885. As the disease spread rapidly 
the municipal authorities adopted the most stringent methods 
to stamp out the disease, and systems of compulsory vaccin 
ation, isolation and, if necessary, removal to civic hospitals were 
put into force in October. An agitation among the ignorant 
classes resulted in a riot. The public vaccination offices in the 
East end were sacked, and a mob stoned the City Hall. The 
situation was so critical that the whole Militia briga^ was put 
under arms and for a couple of nights patrolled the streets. 
Major-General Middleton arrived from Ottawa to direct opera 
tions. As the destruction of the Exhibition buildings, which 
were being fitted up as temporary small-pox hospitals, was threatened, a regiment was kept 
on guard there for three weeks, each regiment taking the duty in turn. There was trouble 
with rioters on one or two occasions but it did not amount to much. The Prince of Wales 
Regiment furnished the first and last of these military guards, turning the temporary 
hospital over to the City Police as the first small-pox patients were entering the gates. 
During this term of service the regiment was under command of Major Butler, Liexit.- 
Colonel Bond being absent on leave in British Columbia. 

In 1886 the regiment passed a very fine inspection before Lieut.-Colonel B. Van 
Straubenzie, D.A.G., who congratulated the men on their soldierly appearance and steadiness 
in the ranks. 

In 1887 the regiment participated in the brigade review in Montreal, Major Butler being 
in command of the regiment, Lieut.-Colonel Bond acting as Brigadier. Major Butler also 


Late commanding 5th Battalion Royal Scots 

of Canada 

commanded the regiment at the annual inspection in 1888. Lieut-Colonel Bond had the 
honour of commanding the Canadian Rifle team at Wimbleton this year, when Her Royal 
Highness the Princess of Wales did the prize winners the honour of handing them their 
prizes. Lieut.-Colonel Bond had the honour of lunching with the Prince and Princess of 
Wales the same da} . 

In April, 1889, Lieut.-Colonel Bond retired from the command and was succeeded bv 
Lieut.-Colonel Thomas Page Butler. In delivering his farewell order Lieut.-Colonel Bond 
said: " I have long appreciated the desire which has been conveyed to me that I might delay 
the resignation of the command of a regiment of which I became Lieut.-Colonel nineteen 
years ago. So long a connection has created ties of affection whose even partial severance 
causes me profund regret. The performance of 1113- duty has ever been a source of pleasure 
to me, and your readiness to aid contributed largely to make it so. While I entered upon 
every active service to which we were called with a feeling of pride, it was, apart from what I 
owed to my country, your eagerness to do even 
more than your full share, which gave it to me. 
Whether it was in defence of the country or in aid of 
the civil power, it has always seemed to me that the 
more serious the occasion the more read} were you 
to answer to the command to fall in. I shall watch 
your future with an abiding faith in your loyalty 
to our Sovereign and in your readiness to sustain 
the authority of the flag under which we live." 

Lieut.-Colonel Butler, in his first order, said 
in part : " Colonel Bond s name has been identified 
with this regiment for nearly thirty years, and for 
a large part of that time as its commanding officer. 
His memory, as that of Mrs. Bond, who has ever 
been so warm a friend of the Battalion, will always 
remain green in the hearts of both officers and men. 
The battalion has always, under his command, main 
tained its proud motto, " Xulli Secundus," and I 
confidently call upon every officer, non-commis 
sioned officer and man, by united action, energy and 
care, to assist me in preserving the reputation we 
have so zealously guarded." 

Dominion Day, 1889, the Regiment spent in Kingston, participating in a review on 
Barriefield Common with A Battery, R.C.A. The regiment was most hospitably entertained 
by the people of Kingston, and had a trip down the river as far as Alexandria Bay. 

In 1891 the regiment spent Dominion Day in Quebec, where the officers and men 
enjoyed themselves heartily in a quiet way. Drill, however, was not overlooked, as the 
Battalion, divided into two forces, engaged in the martial work of a sham engagement on the 
Plains of Abraham. 

The Montreal Amalgamated Rifle Association was organized May 3rd, 1890, chiefly 
through the exertions of Lieut.-Colonel, then Captain, John Hood, who commanded the 
5th Battalion Royal Scots of Canada from 1891 to 1893. Lieut.-Colonel Butler was elected 
the first President of the Asssociation. 

On January the 2oth, 1892, the Regiment attended in a body the service held in Christ 
Church Cathedral in memory of the late Duke of Clarence and Avondale, afterwards 
proceeding to the funeral of the late Captain Johnson, regimental quartermaster. 

Ex-Minister of Militia. 


In 1893 the Regiment was inspected by Lieut. -Colonel Aylmer, then recently appointed 
Assistant Adjutant-General at headquarters. In his official report, the inspecting officer thus 
expressed his opinion of the Regiment : " I made an inspection, by groups, of two companies 
of this regiment, each evening immediate^ before the day of my inspection of the whole 
regiment, which proved most satisfactory. At the several inspections I found all ranks 
zealous and keen at their work, arms clean, accoutrements and clothing clean and well fitted. 
They have an excellent brass, and fife and drum band. The company and battalion drill and 
movements were smartly and steadily done, and the mustering at the close of the inspection 
was perfect." 

What made this praise all the more acceptable was that it came from an officer who had 
just subjected the Regiment to the most severe test to which any corps in Canada had 
yet submitted, this being the first of the searching inspections as at present conducted, with 
separate parades, taken up with company inspections, in addition to the battalion inspection. 

On parade, on inspection day, Lieut.-Colonel Aylmer made a few remarks to the 
Regiment, saying, in substance, that he tried to do his duty and had no doubt that they had 
tried to do theirs. He would not say they were perfect, for that would be an absurdity, 
but he would say that they could be made perfect. On the whole he was very well satisfied 
with the inspection, and it would give him great pleasure to give the most favourable report to 
the general officer commanding. 

Before dismissal, Lieut. -Colonel Butler made a few remarks, complimenting the men on 
the excellent showing they had made. 

Lieut.-Colonel Butler told them that the honour of the regiment had been in their 
hands and they had shown that the Prince of Wales Regiment was second to none. 

In 1894, Major-General Herbert, then commanding the Canadian Militia, as part of 
a plan for making fewer and larger battalions in the service, proposed a plan for the 
amalgamation of the Prince of Wales Regiment with the Sixth Fusiliers, the amalgamated 
regiment to be designated the First or Prince of Wales Regiment. The proposal for a short 
time appeared likely to be put into effect, but the friends and members of both regiments 
loudly protested, and the project was allowed to drop. 

In the efficiency competition between the Montreal regiments for the Sir Donald A. 
Smith Challenge Cup in 1895, the Prince of Wales Regiment had the honour of having the 
most efficient company in the Brigade, No. 6 Company being awarded 113.8 points, as against 
1 1 2. 8 points awarded to No. 3 Company of the Victoria Rifles, the next highest company. 

The more one recalls the past splendid achievements of the Canadian Militia, and 
contemplates the honourable and most exacting position assigned to that proverbially loyal 
and gallant force in the scheme of Imperial defence, the more must he naturally be impressed 
with the sagacity of those whose professional appreciation of the excellent natural military 
material existing in the population of Canada led them to provide in the Militia the means 
of developing the powerful military resources of the country. 

Appreciation of the great value to the Empire of the Canadian Militia is not a recognition 
of yesterday. The London "Morning Herald" of January i/j-th, 1859, commenting on the 
presentation of their first colours to the icoth Regiment, by His Royal Highness the Prince 
of Wales, remarked: "Canada was, as Oliver said of Dunkirk, the spoil of our bow and of 
our spear. From its origin, until the day on which the Prince of Wales described it as a 
" Province " and not a colony, we have all looked to Canada as the mainstay of British 
Dominion in the Western world. Like the ancient colonists of Ireland, the Canadians have 
held the kingdom in the teeth of general rebellions ; but still, there is no doubt that of all the 
distant settlements which the English have created, Canada stood and stands nearest to the 
national heart." 


That the men of Canada appreciate their duty to the Empire the history of the Prince of 
Wales Regiment bears witness, whether that history is considered as dating back, (as these 
pages show it has a good right to), to the First Battalion of Montreal Militia of 1812 and the 
Volunteer Rifle Battalion of 1837-38, or whether it is considered as beginning with the 
establishment of the Montreal Rifle Rangers in 1854, which was the first military corps 
organized under the system which with certain modifications exist to-day. No other Canadian 
corps can witness the fact as thoroughly because none has had so long a continuous career. 

Canada, at the time the gallant companies of which the Prince of Wales Regiment is the 
direct descendant were organized, showed no hesitation in choosing between being a 
subjugated territory of the neighbouring republic or of remaining a free, self-governing 
commonwealth, retaining for its people citizenship in the noblest and most respected Empire 
the world has ever seen. The Canadians of to-day, far from showing any weakening of 
attachment to the mother country, aspire, as the Army Book for the British Empire has it, 
" to remain an integral portion of the empire, recognizing its interests as common interests, 
and accepting their share of its responsibilities and dangers." That the present members 
of the Prince of Wales Regiment possess such an aspiration is shown not more by the pride 
they show in the royal title they bear, than by the practical contribution they make to the 
defence of the Empire in striving to keep the regiment true in military efficiency to its motto 




Bank of Montreal. 

Merchants Hank of Canada. 

Sir Donald A. Smith, K.C.M.G. 

Major E. L. Bond. 

W. W. Ogilvie. 

Hon. Geo. W. Stephens. 

R. B. Angus. 

Jno. H. K. Molson. 

His Worship R. Wilson-Smith. 

Sir Wm. II. Kingston, K C.M.G. 

Hon. Louis Iteaubien. / 

Richard S. White. 

Hugh Graham & Co. 

The Gazette I rinting Co. 

Jno. Dougall & Son. 

lion. T. Berthiaume. 

Royal Electric Co. 

T. G. Roddick, M.D.,M.P. 

E. Goff Penny, MtF. 
R. Bickerdike. 
Hamilton Powder Co. s 
Hon. C. A. Geoffrion, M.P. 
Hon. J. K. Ward. 

\V. C. McDonald. 

II. A. Allan. 

J. A. C. Madore, M.P. 

Henry Birks & Sons. 

Andrew A. Allan. * 

Hiram Walker & Sons. 

Donald Macmaster, Q.C/ 

lion. L. J. Forget. 

Montreal Investment and Free 
hold Co. 

James Ross. 

Raymond Prefontaine, M.P. 

Quebec Bank. 

City & District Savings Bank. 

Laurie Bros. Engine Co. 

Dominion Bridge Co. 

Hon. James McShane. 

Robt. Mackay. 

S. Lachapelle, M.D. 

Hon. L. O. Taillon. 

V. T). Monk, Q.C., M.P. 

The Ames-Holden Co. 

Hon. M. H. Cochran. 

Warden King & Son. 

American Tobacco Co. of Canada. 

Auer (ias Light Mfg. Co. 

Hon. P. E. Leblanc. 

H. Shorey & Co. 

Canadian Express Co. 

G. Cheney. 

The I^ondon & Lancashire Life 
Assurance Co. 

F. T. Bisaillon, Q.C. 

Lieut. -Gov. Sir J. A Chapleau. 
North British & Mercantile In 
surance Co. 
Meldrum Bros. 
Gooderham & Worts. 
Ottawa Kiver Navigation Co. 

Granby Rubber Co. 
""Dawes & Co. 
/ Consumers Cordage Co. 
A. Baumgarten. 
" Jno. Murphy & Co. 
Belding, Paul & Co. 
"T*. Reford & Co. 
t/Lake of the Woods Milling Co. 

W. McXally. 

/Montreal Brewing Co. 
Ra-lnor Water Co. 

( anadian Brewing Co. 
\_y*The James Robertson Co., Ltd. 
/ Chas. Gurd & Co. 
./Hon. Louis F. R. Masson. 

Pratte Piano Co. 

II. A. Ektrs. 

Hon. A. Desjardins. 

Canadian Cork Cutting Co. 
*-Hugh Paton. 
^E. A. Small & Co. 
<!. & T. Bell. 
/J. Rattray & Co. 

Hon. A. W. Atwater. 

A. Boyer. 

Frank J. HartX 
ry Chas. F. Smith. 
\CrThe Thos. Davidson Mfg. Co. 

The Gilbert Bros. Engine Co. 

G. C. Corneille. S 

James Johnson. 

Kvans & Sons, Ltd. 

G. E. Baril, M.D. 

las. Jackson. 
Vj Thos. Robertson & Co. 

O. Desmarais. 

Ls. Arsene Lavallee, L.L.B. 

F. W. G. Johnson. 

C. M. Beausoleil. 
^fohn McDougall. 
/I I. R. Ives& Co. 

Chanteloup Mfg. Co. 
v /jas. Hutton & Co. 

W. J. White. 
/Canadian Rubber Co. 
/L. J. Forget & Co. 

W. Weir. 

Hon. J. O. Villeneuve.^" 
D. Morrice, Sons & Co. 
T-aporte, Martin & Co. 

American Steam Laundry. 

Mount Royal Park Incline Co. 
Chas. P. Hebert. 

R. D. McGibbon, Q.C. 

L. H. Packard & Co. 

J. W. Hill. 

The Robert Mitchell Co. 

Walter Wilson. 

Hector Lamontagne & Co. 
Elder, Dempster & Co. 

H. A. Nelson & Sons. 
]. B. Rolland & Fils. 

/S. Carsley. 

Hon. J. G. Laviolette. 

Johnston Fluid Beef Co. 

Colin McArthur & Co. 

Morton, Phillips \ Co. G. Ross Robertson ..V Sons. 

Wm. St. Pierre \ Jominion Wire Mfg. Co. 

Guardian Fire & .Life Ass. Co. Simpson, Hall, Miller & Co. 

Robert Craik, M.D. Shaw, Cassils & Co. 

Hon. F. G. Marchand. James Harrison. 

"Watson, Foster & Co. 

vWm. Kearney. 

Adolph Davis. 
/Dominion Wadding Co. 

Hon Jno. S. Hall. 

B. Hal Brown. 
/T. H. Christmas. 
Sun Life Assurance Co. 

Judson Ames. 

Aquin iS: Itzweare. 
/T. Prefontaine. 

Henry Archibald. 
/D. Torrance & Co. 
/St. Lawrence Sugar Refining Co. 
J. W. Pyke. 
Tl. A. Mainwaring. 

Jas. T. Burnett. 

British American Dyeing Co. 
/E. Kirk Greene, Jr. 

W. Abbott. 

Thos. Taff.-/ 1 

Alex. Robertson. 
Dominion liag Co. 

Hon. Arthur Turcotte. 
/Owen N. Kvans. 

Wm. Davis & Sons. 

II. Laporte. 

R. Charlebois. 

J. J. Milloy. 

Percival W. St. George. 

Hudon & Orsali. 

P. P. Martin & Co. 

Chas. Lacaille & Co. 

D. Hatton & Co. 

Viau & Frere. 

L. Chaput, Fils & Co. 

B. & S. H. Thompson & Co. 
A. Racine & Co. 

James Harper. 
Mathieu Freres. 

C. Arthur lacques. 
Alex. McDougall. 
Johnston Steamship Co. 
John Torrance, Jr. 
James Alexander. 
Chs. Langlois. 

A. S. & W. H. Masterman. 

H. J. Tiffin. 

W. & F. Currie & Co. 

A. & S. Nordheimer. 

The Canada Eng. <S: Litho. Co. 

R. & O. Navigation Co. 

Dr. A. S. Brosseau. 

Boivin, Wilson & Cie. 

G. & J. Esplin. 

Wm. Ewing. 

Carter, Galbraith & Co. 

Austin & Robertson. 

L. O. Grothe & Co. 

J. C. & J. D. Warrington. 

R. C. Jamieson & Co. 

James Currie. 

Maj. Benj. Kvans. 

Dr. W. H. D. Young. 

G. G. Foster. 

J. Barsalou & Co. 

Dupuis Freres. 

H. A. liudden. 

Chas. Desmarteau. 

Jos. Eveleigh. 
Letendre & Arsenault. 

C. R. Hosmer. 
McLean, Kennedy & Co. 
E. H. Lemay. 

Major Mfg. Co. 

D. Parizeau. 
Duckett, Hodge & Co. 
J. T. Marchand & Cie. 
Thibaudeau Bros. & Co. 
Alex. W. Grant 

B. A. Boas. 

Brayley, Sons & Co. 

D. W. Campbell. 

Robert Fitz-Gibbon. 

Hodgson Bros. 

Croil & McCulloch. 

David Campbell & Son. 

John Cowan. 

Horace Joseph. 

J. H. Se mple. 

Montreal Warehousing Co. 

D. A. MacPherson. 

Laurentian Water Co. 

G. Marsolais. 

The Walter H. Cottingham Co. 

B. E. McGale. 
The Lang Mfg. Co. 
F. F. Parkins. 

A Bremner. 

Michel Lefebvre & Co. 

James Williamson. 

L. Cousineau 

Wm. Nivin & Co. . 

Patterson Mfg. Co. 

Faucher & Fils, 

Joseph Quinn. 

A. Joyce. 

John Lovell & Son. 

Dr. Charles Ault. 

J. W. Marling. 

II. & N. E. Hamilton. 

Nap. Charbonneau 

Frs. Martineau, M.P. P. 

Fogarty Bros. 

C. W. Lindsay. 
Hon. J. E. Robidoux. 
J. Craddock Simpson. 
Hon. J. R. Thibaudeau. 
Dr. F. W. Campbell. 
A. Mantha. 

A. F. Gault. 

[. Riendeau. 

J. M. Aird. 

Fitzgibbon, Schafhetlin & Co. 

Herman H. Wolfe & Co. 

C. Lavallee. 

lames Cochrane. 

N. W. Thenholme, Q.C. 

Glover & Brais. 

Southam & Carey. 

Chas. Alexander. 

Fayetle Brown 

W. Dangerfield. 

Dr. J. G. Laviolette. 

Robert Archer & Co. 

S II. Ewing. 

S. P. Stearnes. 

Pilkington Bros. 

9 6 



f Theodore Lyman, Capt. 31 Aug. 1855, Major 20 Nov. 1850, 

placed on unattached list 27 April 1857, and afterwards 

Lt.-Col. and A.Q.M.G. 
|. W. Haldimand, Lt. 31 Aug. 1855, Capt. and Paymaster 

13 Nov. 1856, retired 17 Nov. 1859. 
J. E. Malhiot, Ens. 31 Aug. 1855, Adj. 21 Aug. 1856, retired 

with rank of Capt. 17 Nov. 1859. 
t John Fletcher, C. M.G Capt. 21 Sept. 185- ), Major 20 Nov. 

1856, joined H. M. 100th Reg. 8 June 1858, after 
wards Lt.-Col. and Brigade Major. 
John Lambert, Lt. 27 Sept. 1855, Capt 21 May 1857, retired 

with rank 17 Nov. 1859. 
Duncan McXaughton, Ens. 27 Sept. 1855, Lt. 21 May 1857, 

left limits 17 Nov. 1859. 

Alex. Bertram, Capt, 2 May 1856, retired 23 April 1857. 
Samuel H. May, Lt. 2 May 1856, Capt. 23 April 18-7, retired 

with rank 18 Aug. 1865. 

Peter Cooper, Ens. 2 May 1856, Q.M. and Lt. 13 Nov. 1856 
t Bernard Devlin, Capt. 2 May 1856, Major 26 Nov. 1857, 

Lt.-Col. in command 18 July 1862, retired with rank 

13 July 1866. 
F. F. Mullins, Lt. 2 May 1856, Capt. 18 Feb. 1858, retired 

1 Aug. 1861. 

John Gillies, Ens. 2 May 1856, Lt. 18 Feb. 1858, Capt. 1 Aug. 

1861, retired with rank 27 Aug. 1862. 

t John Dyde, C. B., A. D. C. to H. M., 1st Col. of Rifle Com 
panies 8 May 1856, Commandant Montreal Brigade 

11 Dec. 1856. 

W. P. Bartley, Capt. 26 June 1856, r.r.r. Major 15 April 1858. 
Thos. A. Evans, Capt 17 July 1856, Major 8 June 1858. 
f C. F. Hill, Lt. 17 July 1856, Capt. 31 July 1857, Major 

18 July 1862, Lt. Col. in command 18 July 1866, 

r. r. r. 8 Oct. 1869. 

Joseph Lee, Ens. 17 July 1856, resigned 7 Aug. 1856. 
Joshua Hronsdon, Ens. 7 Aug. 1856, Lt. 31 July 1857, retired 

12 Dec. 1862. 

t Jas. W. Hanson, Ens. 21 Aug. 1856, Lt. 13 Nov. 1856, 

Capt. 28 July 1858, retired on appt. as Brigade Major 

with rank of Major 16 Nov. 1862, Lt.-Col. 1 Feb. 

1867, retired with view of future service 1 May 1876. 

Henry Kavanagh, Lt. 18 Sept. 1856, Capt. 15 April 1858, 

r.r.r. Major 3 June 1864. 

Jas. Donnelly. Ens. 18 Sept. 1856, resigned 23 April 1857, 
reapptd. 4 Feb. 1858, Lt. 15 April 1858, retired 

2 April 1860. 

John MacPherson, Capt. 16 Oct. 1856, ret. on appt. as B.M. 

with rank Lt.-Col. 
C. E. Belle, Capt. 30 Oct. 1856, apptd paymaster 17 Nov. 

1859, Brig. Paymstr. and Lt.-Col. 1 Aug. 1860. 
Olivier Deguise, Lt. 30 Oct. 1856, retired 12 Nov. 1857. 
Luc O. Dufresne, Ens. 30 Oct. 1856, Lt. 12 Nov. 1857, Capt. 

17 Nov. 1859, r. r. r. 2 Dec. 1864, 

George McGibbon, Lt. 30 Oct. 1856, Capt. 28 July 1858. 
Peter Moir, Ens. 30 Oct. 1856, Lt 31 Dec. 1858, retired 

I May 1863. 

t W. E. Scott, M.D., Surgeon 13 Nov. 1856, transferred to 

G.T.R. 5 Dec. 1866. 
A. II. Kollmyer, M. D., Asst. Surgeon, 13 Nov. 1856, 

resigned 26 May 1860. 
Archibald Stewart, Ens. 13 Nov. 1856, Lt. 17 Nov. 1869, 

Died. Buried with Military Honors, 8 Aug. I860, 
t Thos. Wiley, Lt.-Col. in Command, of Rifle Companies 

II Dec. 1856, and of 1st Battalion on its organization 
1 7 Nov. 1859, ret. on appt. to Militia Dept. 18 July 1862. 

Wm. Middleton, Ens. 14 March 1857, Lt. 16 June 1857. 
A. H. Latour, Capt. 14 April 1857, retired with rank of 
Major 30 May 1862. 

Edward Beaudry, Lt. 14 April 1857, retired 30 Dec. 1858. 
Frs.-Xavier Lanthier, Ens. 14 April 1857, Lt. 31 Dec 1858, 

resigned 10 Oct. 1830. 
John McKeon, Ens. 23 April 1857. 
John Garven, Ens. 21 May 1857, Lt. 18 Feb. 1859, Capt. 

28 Feb. 1860. 
f George Wilson, Ens. 16 June 1857, resigned r. r. Q. M. 30 

Nov. 1866. 

William O. Smith, Ens. 31 July 1857, r. r. r 3 May 1861. 
Dominique Dupont, Ens. 12 Nov. 1857, Lt. 17 Nov. 1859, 

resigned 1 Nov. 1861. 
Thos. F. Blackwood, Ens. 15 April 1858, Lt. 8 Aug. 1860, 

resigned 3 May 1861. 
Daniel Rooney, Ens. 15 April 1858, Lt. 2 April 1860, 

resigned 1 May 1863. 

Duncan Macpherson, Ens. 20 May 1858, r. r. r. 3 May 1860. 
Henry Ashby, Ens 7 Oct. 1858. 
Eraste d Odet d Orsonnens, Ens. 31 Dec. 1858. 
Duncan Barclay, En*. 31 Dec. 1858. 
William Smyth, Ens. 18 Feb. 1859, retired 23 April 1800. 
George Brown, Ens. 11 July 1859, r. r. r. ! Oct 1863. 
Richard C,. Starke, Ens 17 Nov. 1859, r. r. r. 3 May 1861. 
Charles Payette, Ens. 17 Nov. 185 ,), retired 8 Nov. 1861. 
Gustave d Odet d Orsonnens, 17 Nov. 1859, retired 18 Aug. 
I860, now Lt.-Col. and D. A. G. M. D. No. 6 and 
Commandant Depot 3 R. R. C. I. 
t Edwyn Evans, Capt. Adj. 17 Nov. 1859, Major 24 Nov. 1864, 

Bt. Lt.-Col. 15 March 1867, r. r. r. 8 April 1870. 
Edward Murphy, Ens. 17 Nov. 1859, resigned 29 Oct. 1862. 
t George S. Eraser, Ens. 16 March 1860, Lt. 13 Aug. 1861, 

joined H. M. 62d Regt. 
f Francis S. Gallagher, Ens. 2 April 1860, l.t. 9 Jan. 1862, 

resigned 5 Oct. 18IJIJ. 
t Geo. B. Pearson, Ens. i2 April I860, Lt. 3 May 1861, 

Capt. 9 Jan. 1863, resigned 25 Nov. 1870. 
Alex. G. Lindsay, Ens. 3 May 1860, Lt. 19 Feb. 1861, r.r. r. 

9 Oct. 1863. 

f Francis W. Campbell, M.I)., Asst. Surgn, 2(5 May 1860, 
Surgeon 5 Oct. 1866, transferred to (No 3 Co. R. R. 
C. I.) 21 Dec. 1883. 
Chs. D. Hanson, Ens. 8 May 1860, Lt. 3 May 1861, Capt. 

9 Jan. 1863, reappointed Capt. 13 Jan. 1881. 
Charle-i Wilson, Ens. 18 Nov. 1860, retired 17 July 1861. 
t James Garven, Ens. 22 Nov. 1860, Lt. 10 Aug. 1866, Capt 

14 Sept. 1866, retired 22 Feb. 1867. 
Tliomas Daly, retired 17 July 1861. 
William McDonald, Ens. 22 March 1861, l.t. 9 June 1863, 

left limits 18 Aug. 1865. 

Malcom Morison, Ens. 3 May 1861, resigned 12 Dec. 1862 
J. R. Boyce, Ens. 3 May 1861, Lt. 9 Jan. 1863. 
t A. A Meilleur, Ens. 10 Oct. 1860, Lt. 17 July 1861, Capt. 

30 May 1862, retired 5 Oct. 1866. 
Wm. G. Slack, Ens. 17 July 1861, Capt. 30 May 1862, 

retired 9 Oct. 1863. 

L. A. E. Globensky, Ens. 17 July 1861, retired 3 June 1861. 
Edward Burnes, l.t. 1 Aug. 1861, Capt. 27 Aug. 1862, r.r.r. 

14 Sept. 1866. 

t Frank Bon-1, Ens. 18 Aug. 1861, Lt. 1 Dec. 1861, Capt. 27 
Aug. 1862, Major 18 Oct. 1867, Lt -Col in command 
12 Aug. 1870 retired with rank 29 March 1889. 
Arthur M. David, Ens. 13 Aug. 1861, l.t. 12 Dec. 1862, 

Adj. 10 April 1863. 
t Joseph Perrault, Ens. 22 Nov. 1861, Lt. 9 Jan. 1862, resigned 

5 Oct. 1866. 
William J Porteous, Ens. 28 Feb. 1862, Lt. 27 Aug. 1862. 


f William ti. Burland, Ens. 27 Aug. 18(52, C apt. 2 I)ec. 1864. 
t Francis Kernan, Lt. 20 Oct. 18(12, r. r. r. Id Aug. 18(jti. 
t Henry J. Clarke, Ens. 29 Oct. 18(12, Lt. 8 lune 1864, Capt. 

27 July I860, 
f Edward Hohon, Ens. 29 Oct. 1802, l.t 14 Dec. 1806. 

Edward M. Burrage, Ens. (i Dec. 1801, Lt. 12 Dec. 18(12, 

resigned 1 May 1803. 

John Gordon Burland, Ens. 12 Dec. 1802, left limits 18 
Aug. 1805. 

Archibald Ogden, Ens. 9 Jan. 1803, resigned 17 March 1865. 

Wm. Round, Ens. 9 Ian. 18(13, L(. 18 Aug. 1805, resigned 
10 Nov. 1805." 

t Chas. E. Brush, Ens. March 1863, Lt. 23 Oct. 1863, Capt. 
2;) Eeb. 1866, resigned 14 Dec. 1866. 

t Wm. E. Farrell, Ens. 1 May 1863, Capt. 3 Tune 164, 
resigned 14 Dec. 1800. 

Thomas Matthews, Ens, 3 June 1864. 

t Wm. Robinson, Ens. 13 April 1865, Lt. 28 April 1805, 
Capt. 23 Feb. 1806, Major 12 Aug. 1870. 

t Tucker David, Ens. 28 April 1805, Lt. 28 April 1865, Capt. 

18 Jan. 1867, resigned 29 May 1869. 
Henry Vass, Ens. 13 Apiil 1805, Lt. 10 Nov. 1865. 

t William Townsend, Ens. 28 April 1865, Lt. 10 Nov. 1865, 

resigned 28 Sept. 1800. 
t lohn Rogers, Ens. 18 Aug. 1805, Lt. 23 Feb. 1806, Capt. 

15 May 1806, Bt. Major 15 May 1871, r. r. r. Major 

19 Sept. 1873. 

t David A. Hart, Ens. 18 Aug. 1865, Lt. 23 Feb. 1866, Capt. 

14 IK-c, 1800, left limits 18 Dec. 1808. 
t Henry Wall, Capt. 14 Sept. 1865. 
f E. Thompson, Ens. 5 Oct. 1865, Deceased. 

Chas. Ottley Smith, Ens. 14 Dec. I860, Lt. 31 Oct. 1867. 


t Edward Quigley, Ens. 5 Oct. 1866, left limits 22 April 1870. 
t lohn Bulmer, Ens. 5 Oct. 1865, Lt. 20 Oct. 1850, 5 April 

1867, resigned 19 Feb. 1869, ret. rank 12 Dec. 1879, 
t Thomas Correstine, Capt. 5 Oct. 1806, res. 14 Dec. 1866. 
t Henry Cormack, Lt. 5 Oct. 1860, resigned 12 April 1807. 
t Henry I almer, Ens d Oct. 1806 
t Alfred Elliott, Ens. 2(i Oct. 1865. 
f James McNider, Ens. 14 Dec. 1865. 
t Patrick Mathews, Ens. 23 Feb. 1866, Lt. 5 Oct. 1866, Capt. 

2>1 < >ct. 1860, r. r. r. 28 Dec. 1866. 
f Alexander Milloy, Paymaster 13 April 1866, Hon. rank of 

Capt. 13 April 1866, Hon. rank of Major 13 April 

1871, r.r.r. 20 Nov. 1891. 
t Edward L. Bond, Ens. 1 March 1806, Lt. 18 Oct. 1867, 

Capt. 11 June 1869, Major 11 July 1873, r.r.r. 

1") Aug. 1884, served subsequently with the Regiment 

as Adjutant and second in command, in 1885. 
t ( .. J. Macfarlane, Lt. 13 March 1806, Capt. 18 Oct. 1807, 

resigned II June 1809. 
t Wm. Johnson, Ens. 14 Dec. 1800, Otr. Mstr. 14 Dec. 1806, 

reappointed Qtr. Mstr. 28 June 1889, res. 10 July 

1807. deceased Jan. 1892. Buried with Military 

honors. Hon. Capt. 28 June 1889. 
C. O. Smythe, Ens. 14 Dec. 1866. 
t Henry Bulmer, Ens. 14 Dec. 1806, Lt. 19 April 1807, Capt. 

22 April 1870, r. r. r. of Lt 28 Oct. 1870 
Skeffington Thompson, Ens. 12 April 1806, res. 21 Nov. 1807. 
t Duncan McFee, Ens 12 April 1807, Lt. 11 Oct. 1807, Capt. 

12 June 1808, ret. with Hon. rank of C apt. "> July 1878. 

Robert Balfour, Ens. 19 July 1807, Qtr. Mstr. 19 July 1867. 

f Fred. S. Barnjum, Lt. 29 Oct. 1867, Capt. 12 Aug. 1870, 

Major 25 Feb. 1876, Adj. 12 Aug. 1870, Bt. Major 

."> Nov. 1875, r. r. r. 23 Feb. 1877. 
t John Robinson, Ens. 29 Oct. 1809, Lt. 22 April 1870, Capt. 

20 Nov. 1870, resigned 27 March 1874. 

t Hy. J. Mudge, Lt. 29 Oct. 1809, Capt. 12 Aug. 1870, res. 

28 Oct. 1870. 
f Samuel C. Stevenson, Lt. 22 April 1870, ( apt, 25 Nov. 1870, 

Major 23 Feb. 1877, r. r. r. 29 April 1881. 
t Jesse Deligny Armstrong, Ens. 22 April 1870, resigned 

12 July 1872. 

f Jas. Leslie Starnes, Ens. 12 Aug. 1870, res. 10 April 1872. 
t Magnus Cormack, Capt. 12 Aug. 1870, res. 25 Oct. 1872. 
f Chas. Newhouse Armstrong, Ens. 23 Sept. .1870, resigned 

22 Dec. 1871. 

Edw. Whiteway Mudge, Ens. 25 Nov. 1870, Lt. 13 Oct. 

1871, Capt. 14 June 1872, Bt. Major 14 June 1877, 
r. r. r. 5 Nov. 1880. 

Richard t;. Lafrenaye, Ens. 25 Nov. 1870, res. 22 Dec. 1871 . 
Clarence J. II. Chipman, M.D., Asst. Surgeon, 5 Jan. 1871, 

resigned 5 Nov. 1875. 
Alex. McTavish Watt, Ens. 28 Tune 1871, Lt. 13 Oct. 1871, 

Capt. 11 July 1873. r. r. f. 5 Nov. 1880. 
Wm. deCourcy Harnett, Ens. 3 Nov. 1871, Lt. 23 May 1872, 

resigned 27 March, 1874. 
Robert Tatlow, Ens. 26 Jan. 1872. Lt. 23 May 1872, Capt. 

23 Feb. 1877, r. r. r. 30 Oct. 1879. 

Damase Sincennes, Ens. 23 May 1872, res. 21 July 1876, 

reinstated 21 Dec. 1877, Lt. 17 Dec. 188(>, Capt. 27 

Oct. 1882, r.r.r. 27 Nov. 1885. 
Thomas Howard Wright, Ens. 14 June 1872 and 2 Dec. 

1874, Lt. 24 March 1875, Capt. 6 April 1877, r. r. r. 

30 Oct. 1 879. 
Kobt. W. Shepherd, Jr., Ens. 12 [uly 1872, Lt. 8 Nov. 

1872, Capt. 24 July 1874, r. r. r. 30 Oct. 1879. 
Geo. F. Armstrong, Capt. 19 Sept. 1873, resigned 6 April 


f Thos. Geo. Roddick, M.D., Capt. 19 Sept. 1873, resigned 25 
Sept. 1874, Appt. Surgn. 20 March 1885, served 
during North West Rebellion as Deputy Surgeon 

Wm. Bell Dawson, Lt. 19 Sept. 1873, resigned 5 Nov. 1875. 
Robert Reddick, Lt. 19 Sept. 1873, resigned 11 Sept. 1874. 
Herbert S. Reddy, Ens. 19 Sept. 1873, resigned 11 Sept 

James C. Cameron, Ens. 19 Sept. 1873, resigned 19 June 

Alex. Robertson, Ens. 19 Sept. 1873, Lt. 24 July 1874, 

Capt. 9 Oct. 1874, r. r. r. 20 Nov. 1880. 
Sidney Alfred Dunlevie, Lt. 11 Sept. 1874, resigned 10 

Nov. 1870. 
Ered. J. Claxton, Ens. 25 Sept. 1874 and 2 Dec. 1874, Lt. 

"24 March 1875, resigned 9 Nov. 1877. 
Thos. Chas. Watson, late II. M. 50th and 75th Regts., Capt. 

12 April 1876, Adj. 22 April 1870, resigned 26 Jan. 

John Fortune Nott, Ens. 13 Oct. 1876, Lt. 10 Nov. 1876, 

Qtr. Mstr. with lion, rank Capt. 6 July 1878, Capt. 

30 Oct. 1879, Major 29 April 1881, r. r.r. lyuly 1887. 
Sidney Caldcott Chubb, Lt. 5 Nov. 1876, resigned 22 June 

Wm. Wallace Watson, Ens. 10 Nov. 1870, Lt. 13 May 

1878, Capt. 30 Oct. 1879, resigned 17 Dec. 1880. 
Geo. Wm. Hatton, Capt. & Adj. 23 Feb. 1877, Bi. Major 7 

June 1877, retired with rank C apt. 18 Jan. 1878. 
Kenneth Cameron Patterson, Ens. 22 May 1877, Lt. 22 June 

1877, deceased June 6 1883. 

Stanley Kinnear, Ens. 22 May 1877, Lt. 22 June 1877, 
resigned 16 Aug. 1878. 

lohn Ogden Wilgress, Ens. 22 May 1877, Lt. 22 lune 1877, 
Capt. 30 Oct. 1879, r. r. r. 18 June 1886. 

fas. B. McConnell, Asst. Surgn. 6 Nov. 1877, resigned 13 

April 188::. 

Hy. Trollope Wilgress, Ens. 13 May 1878, Lt. 15 Nov. 

1878, Capt. 26 Nov. 1880, r. r. r. of Lt 27 Oct. 1882. 
loseph Ross Ilutchins, Ens. 5 July 1878. Capt. 15 Nov. 

1878, Adj. 15 Nov. 1878, resigned 16 July 1880. 
Russ Wood Huntingdon, Ens. 5 July 1878, resigned 1 Aug. 

Ed. Kirke Greene, Ens. 21 July 1879, Lt. 24 March 1880, 

Capt. 20 Nov. 188H, r". r. r. 12 Feb. 1886. 
Stewart Hunter, Ens. 30 Oct. 1879, left the limits. 
Wm. fas. Turpin, Qtr. Mstr. 20 Dec. 1879, Capt. 22 Dec. 

1882, r.r.r. 10 July 1885. 
Stewart Campbell, Ens. 23 Feb. 1880, Lt. 24 March 1880, 

Capt. 17 Dec. 1880, Adj. 18 June 1880, Major 15 

I uly 1887, r.r.r. 9 May 1890. 

9 8 

Claude de B. Leprohon, Ens. 23 Feb. 1880, Lt. 24 March 

1880, Capt. 27 Nov. 1885, appointed Qtr. Master 

28 June 1889, r. r. r. 9 May 1890. 
Alton Fergus Clerk, Ens. 6 March 1880, Lt. 24 March 1880, 

resigned 29 April 1881. 

Phillip D. Ross, Ens. .I April 1880, resigned 5 Nov. 1880. 
Thos. Page Butler, Capt. 17 Dec. 1880, Adj. 13 Jan. 1881, 

Major ;i Oct 1 84, Lt. -Col. in command 29 March 89. 
Herbert Story Hunter, 2 Lt. 29 April 1881 , resigned 13 April 

1883, rejoined as Lt. 11 March 1887, resigned 13 

Dec. 1889. 
lames M. Paul, 2 Lt. 29 April 1881, Lt. 11 March 1887, 

resigned 27 Nov. 1885. 
R. Campbell Nelles, 2 Lt. 27 Oct. 1882, resigned 10 April 

Chas. Patk Guy, 2 Lt. 13 April 1883, resigned 10 April 

Dennis Gaherty, Asst. Surgn. 30 June 1884, resigned 20 

March 1885. 
Ceo. F. Cooke, Capt. 3 Oct. 1884, Deceased 1891, buried 

with military honors. 
Win. E. Bradshaw, 2 Lt. 3 Oct. 1884, resigned 5 March 

1880, rejoined as Captain 9 May 1890, resigned 28 

July 1893. 
K. W. Gambier- Bousfield, Lt. 10 April 1885, res. 30 Tuly 

Arthur Scott Henshaw, Lt. 10 April 1885, Capt. 18 June 

1880, r. r. r. 9 May 1890. 
Chas. H. Godfrey, 2 Lt. 10 Aprill 1885, Capt. 18 June 1880, 

r. r. r. 9 May 1890. 

Thomas Tail, 2 Lt. 10 April 1885, res. 30 July 1886. 
Frank Scott, 2 Lt. 10 April 1885, Lt. 18 June 188G, Capt. 

17 Aug. 1 886, r. r. r. 9 May 1890, rejoined as Capt. 

23 June 1893, r. r. r. 2 Dec. 1893. 

Geo. Tillerie Ross, Asst. Surgeon, 24 April 1885, rank of 

Surgeon 24 April 1895. 

Wm. Abbott, Lt. 5 April 1885, res. 13 Dec. 1889. 
H. T. A. Bell, 2 Lt. 18 June 1886, left limits 7 April 1887. 
Robt. Hy. Wilson, Lt. 11 March 1887, res. 9 March 1895. 
Fred. Austin Bourne, Lt. 11 March 1887, res. 11 May 1895. 
Stanley Kinnear, 2 Lt. 11 March 1887, res. 21 Oct. 1887. 
Geo. R. Lighthall, transferred from tith Fusiliers, Capt. Adj. 

16 Sept. 1887, r. r. r. 26 June 1891. 
Gaspard Lefevre, Lt. 21 Oct. 1887, Capt. 13 Dec. 1889. 

Paymaster 20 Nov. 1891. 
Alex. G. Milloy, Lt. 3 Feb. 1888, Capt. 2(1 Sept. 1890, 

Thos. E. Howell, 2 Lt. 29 March 1889, Lt. 18 April 1890, 

Capt. 9 May 1890, Adj. 20 func 1890, res. the adjtcy. 

24 Dec. 1S91 , left limits 23 June 1892, joined Mounted 
Police South Africa, wounded at Buluwayo 1896. 

Edmund T. Bartlett, 2 Lt. 17 May 1889, Lt. 18 April 1890 
Capt. 9 May 1890, r. r. r. 10 Nov. 1894. 

Robert A. Dunton, 2 Lt. 14 June 1889, res. 16 Oct. 1891. 

Hector Buie, 2 Lt. 14 June 1889, resigned 20 Nov. 1891. 

Hugh McLean, 2 Lt. 9 May 1890, transferred to 48th High 
landers 3 May 1892. 

Win. Langley Bond, 2 Lt. 9 May 1890, Lt. 26 Sept. 1890, 
Capt 26 June 1891, Adj. 14 Oct. 1893. 

Gordon Lewis, 2 Lt. 9 May 1890, Lt. 26 Sept 1890, Capt. 
1C, Oct. 1891, resigned 23 June 1893. 

Edgar Noel Armstrong, 2 Lt. 22 May 1891, Lt. 20 Jan. 1893, 
Capt. 1 June 1895. 

Joseph Peter Cooke, Capt. 22 May 1891, Major 16 Oct. 1891. 

Frank Meighen, Lt. 22 May 1891, transferred to Sth Batt. 
1C, Dec. 1892. 

John Porteous, Capt. 26 June 1891, Adj. 24 Dec. 1891, res. 

the Adjtcy. resuming command of Company as Captain 

14 Oct. 1893. 
Cierald Baldwin McCrae, Lt. 26 June 1891, resigned 1 June 

Thos. Francis Dobbin, 2 Lt. 26 June 1891, Lt. 20 Ian. 1893, 

Capt. 28 July 1893. 
Win. Simpson, 2 Lt. 2C, lune 1891, Capt. and Qtr. Mstr. 24 

March 1892 

Robt. Daubeny Howell, 2 Lt. 10 Oct. 1891, left limits 9 
March 1895. 

Douglass Dalzell Macrae, 2 Lt. 3 May 1892. 
John Ainslie Finhiyson, (. apt. 20 Jan. 1893. 

John Hood, Capt. and Lieut. -Col. 23 June 1893, from retired 
list of Lieutenant-Colonels, formerly in command of 
Royal Sects. 

Walter Hunter Laurie, Major 7 July 1893, from retired list 
of Majors. 

Wm. Godbee Brown, 2 Lt. 4 Nov. 1893, Capt. 15 June 

Wm. Geo. McVicar Stuart, 2 Lt, 4 Nov. 1893, Lt. 9 March 

Lionel Lincoln Fisher Smith, 2 Lt. 4 Nov. 1893, Lt. 19 

Sept. 1896. 

Robert Bennett Hutcheson, 2 Lt. 19 May 1894. 
Alan Butler, 2 Lt. 19 May 1894. 
Graham Leonard Dobbin, 2 Lt. 19 May 1894, Lt. 19 

Sept. 1896. 

Wm. Edward Brown, 2 Lt. 12 Jan. 1895, Lt. 19 Sept. 1896. 
J. H. Smith, 2 Lt. 9 March 1895. 

D. D. F. Laurie, 2 Lt. 18 Feb. 1895, Lt. 27 June 1896. 
Wm. Robinson, 2 Lt. 11 May 1895. 
Augustus John Ross Bostwick, 2 Lieut. 8 Sept. IM C,. 

f Officers who have seen War Service.